Gregory Shaffer

Law Faculty

Office: N230
Mondale Hall, 229 19th Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55455



  • Transnational Legal Ordering and State Change (Cambridge University Press, 2013) (editor)
  • Dispute Settlement at the WTO: The Developing Country Experience (Cambridge University Press, 2010) (co-editor) Ricardo Melendez-Ortiz
  • When Cooperation Fails: The International Law and Politics of Genetically Modified Foods (Oxford University Press, 2009) Mark A. Pollack
  • The Future of Transatlantic Economic Relations: Continuity Amid Discord (European University Institute, Florence, 2005) (conference volume) Mark A. Pollack, Helen Wallace & David Andrews
  • Defending Interests: Public Private Partnerships in W.T.O. Litigation (Brookings Institution Press, 2003)
  • Transatlantic Governance in the Global Economy (Rowman & Littlefield, 2001) (co-editor) Mark A. Pollack

Journal Articles

  • Empiricism, Experimentalism, and Conditional Theory, 67 SMU Law Review 141 (2014) Victoria Nourse
  • Comparative Institutional Analysis and a New Legal Realism, 2013 Wisconsin Law Review 607-628 (2013)
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  • International Law and Global Public Goods in a Legal Pluralist World, 23 European Journal of International Law 669-693 (2012)
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  • The Empirical Turn in International Legal Scholarship, 106 American Journal of International Law 1-46 (2012) Tom Ginsburg
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  • Transnational Legal Process and State Change, 37 Law & Social Inquiry 229-264 (2012)
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  • Transnationalism, Unilateralism and International Law, 1 Transnational Environmental Law 31-41 (2012) Daniel Bodansky
  • Criminalizing Cartels: A Global Trend?, 12 Sedona Conference Journal 313-336 (2011) Nathaniel H. Nesbitt
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  • Hard versus Soft Law in International Security, 52 Boston College Law Review 1147-1241 (2011) Mark A. Pollack
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  • Interpretation and Institutional Choice at the WTO, 52 Virginia Journal of International Law 103-153 (2011) Joel Trachtman
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  • Hard vs. Soft Law: Alternatives, Complements, and Antagonists in International Governance, 94 Minnesota Law Review 706-799 (2010) Mark A. Pollack
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  • Risk, Science, and Law in the WTO: The Centrality of Institutional Choice, 104 Proceedings of the American Society of International Law 19-23 (2010)
  • Does Legal Capacity Matter? A Survey of WTO Members, 8 World Trade Review 559-577 (2009) Marc L. Busch & Eric Reinhardt
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  • How Business Shapes Law: A Socio-Legal Framework, 42 Connecticut Law Review 147-183 (2009)
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  • Varieties of New Legal Realism: Can a New World Order Prompt a New Legal Theory?, 95 Cornell Law Review 61-137 (2009) Victoria Nourse
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  • A Structural Theory of WTO Dispute Settlement: Why Institutional Choice Lies at the Center of the GMO Case, 41 New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 1-101 (2008)
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  • Access to Justice in the World Trade Organization: A Case for a Small Claims Procedure?, 7 World Trade Review 587-640 (2008) Hakan Nordstrom
  • The Trials of Winning at the WTO: What Lies Behind Brazil’s Success, 41 Cornell International Law Journal 383-501 (2008) Michelle Ratton Sanchez & Barbara Rosenberg
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  • The Challenges of WTO Law: Strategies for Developing Country Adaptation, 5 World Trade Review 177-198 (2006)
  • Transatlantic Economic Relations: Continuity Amid Discord, 5 European Political Science (Journal of the European Consortium for Political Research) 62-68 (2006) Mark A. Pollack
  • What’s New in EU Dispute Settlement? Judicialization, Public-Private Networks and the WTO Legal Order, 13 Journal of European Public Policy 832-850 (2006)
  • Can WTO Technical Assistance and Capacity-Building Serve Developing Countries?, 23 Wisconsin International Law Journal 643-686 (2005)
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  • Institutional Choice in the Generalized System of Preferences Case: Who Decides the Conditions for Trade Preferences? The Law and Politics of Rights, 39 Journal of World Trade 977-1008 (2005) Yvonne Apea
  • The Role of the Director-General and Secretariat: Chapter IX of the Sutherland Report, 4 World Trade Review 429-438 (2005) (special issue: “Reflections on the 10th Anniversary of the WTO”)
  • Transnational Mutual Recognition Regimes: Governance Without Global Government, 68 Law and Contemporary Problems (Duke Law School) 263-317 (Summer/Autumn 2005) Kalypso Nicolaidis
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  • Parliamentary Oversight of WTO Rule-Making: The Political, Normative, and Practical Contexts, 7 Journal of International Economic Law 629-654 (2004)
  • Recognizing Public Goods in WTO Dispute Settlement: Who Participates? Who Decides?: The Case of TRIPS and Pharmaceutical Patent Protection, 7 Journal of International Economic Law 459-482 (2004)
  • Reconciling Trade and Regulatory Goals: The Prospects and Limits of New Approaches to Transatlantic Governance Through Mutual Recognition and Safe Harbor Agreements, 9 Columbia Journal of European Law 29-77 (2002)
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  • The World Trade Organization under Challenge: Democracy and the Law and Politics of the WTO’s Treatment of Trade and Environment Matters, 25 Harvard Environmental Law Review 1-93 (2001)
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  • Biotechnology: The Next Transatlantic Trade War?, 23 The Washington Quarterly 41-54 (Autumn 2000) Mark A. Pollack
  • Globalization and Social Protection: The Impact of EU and International Rules in the Ratcheting Up of U.S. Privacy Standards, 25 Yale Journal of International Law 1-88 (2000)
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  • WTO Blue-Green Blues: The Impact of U.S. Domestic Politics on Trade-Labor, Trade-Environment Linkages for the WTO’s Future, 24 Fordham International Law Journal 608-651 (2000) (special issue: “The World Trade Organization, Globalization, and the Future of International Trade”)
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  • An Alternative to Unilateral Immigration Controls: Toward a Coordinated U.S.-Mexico Binational Approach, 41 Stanford Law Review 187-232 (1988) (note)

Book Chapters

  • The Rise of Middle-Income Countries in the International Trading System, in Law and Development of Middle-Income Countries: Avoiding the Middle-Income Trap 59-83 (Randall Peerenboom & Tom Ginsburg, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2014) Charles Sutton
  • Transnational Legal Ordering and Access to Medicines, in Patent Law in Global Perspective 97-126 (Ruth L. Okediji & Margo A. Bagley, eds., Oxford University Press, 2014) Susan K. Sell
  • Transnational Legal Ordering and State Change, in Transnational Legal Ordering and State Change 1-22 (Gregory Shaffer, ed., Cambridge University Press, 2013)
  • The Dimensions and Determinants of State Change, in Transnational Legal Ordering and State Change 23-49 (Gregory Shaffer, ed., Cambridge University Press, 2013)
  • Conclusion: The Study of Transnational Legal Ordering, in Transnational Legal Ordering and State Change 212-215 (Gregory Shaffer, ed., Cambridge University Press, 2013)
  • Hard and Soft Law, in Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Law and International Relations: The State of the Art 197-222 (Jeffrey L. Dunoff & Mark A. Pollack, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2013)
  • The Interaction of Formal and Informal International Lawmaking, in Informal International Lawmaking 241-270 (Joost Pauwelyn, Ramses A Wessel & Jan Wouters, eds., Oxford University Press, 2012) Mark A. Pollack
  • The Transnational Meets the National: The Construction of Trade Policy Networks in Brazil, in Lawyers and the Construction of Transnational Justice 170-215 (Yves Dezalay & Bryant G. Garth, eds., Routledge, 2012) Michelle Ratton Sanchez Badin & Barbara Rosenberg
  • WTO Judicial Interpretation, in The Oxford Handbook on the World Trade Organization 535-559 (Amrita Narlikar, Martin Daunton & Robert M. Stern, eds., Oxford University Press, 2012) Joel Trachtman
  • How Hard and Soft Law Interact in International Regulatory Governance: Alternatives, Complements and Antagonists, in Systemic Implications of Transatlantic Regulatory Cooperation and Competition 63-129 (Simon J. Evenett & Robert M. Stern, eds., World Scientific, 2011) Mark Pollack
  • Agricultural Biotechnology Policy in the EU: Between National Fears and Global Disciplines, in Policy-Making in the European Union (Helen Wallace, William Wallace & Mark A. Pollack, eds., 6th ed., Oxford University Press, 2010) Mark A. Pollack
  • Extrapolating Purpose from Practice: Rebalancing or Inducing Compliance, in The Law, Economics and Politics of Retaliation in WTO Dispute Settlement (Chad P. Bown & Joost Pauwelyn, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2010) Daniel Ganin
  • How Does International Law Work, in The Oxford Handbook of Empirical Legal Research 753-784 (Peter Cane & Herbert Kritzer, eds., Oxford University Press, 2010) Tom Ginsburg
  • Developing Country Use of the WTO Dispute Settlement System: Why It Matters, the Barriers Posed, and Its Impact on Bargaining, in Trade Disputes and the Dispute Settlement Understanding of the WTO: An Interdisciplinary Assessment (James Hartigan, ed., Emerald, 2009)
  • A New Legal Realism: Method in International Economic Law Scholarship, in International Economic Law: The State and Future of the Discipline 29-42 (Colin B. Picker, Isabella D. Bunn & Douglas W. Arner, eds., Hart Publishing, 2008)
  • Risk Regulation, GMOs and the Limits of Deliberation, in Unveiling the Council of the European Union: Games Governments Play in Brussels 144-164 (Daniel Naurin & Helen Wallace, eds., Palgrave MacMillan, 2008) Mark A. Pollack
  • Weaknesses and proposed improvements to the WTO Dispute Settlement System: an economic and market view, in 10 Anos de OMC: Uma analise do Sistema de Solucao de Controversias e Perspectivas (Luiz Olavo Baptista, Umberto Celli Junior & Alan Yanovich, eds., Edicoes Aduaneiras, 2006) (edited volume in Portuguese)
  • Biotechnology Policy: Between National Fears and Global Disciplines, in Policy-Making in the European Union 329-352 (Helen Wallace, William Wallace & Mark A. Pollack, eds., Oxford University Press, 5th ed., 2005) Mark A. Pollack
  • Power, Governance and the WTO: A Comparative Institutional Approach, in Power in Global Governance 130-160 (Michael Barnett & Raymond Duvall, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2005)
  • “Public-private Partnerships” in WTO Dispute Settlement: The US and EU Experience, in The WTO in the Twenty-first Century: Dispute Settlement, Negotiations, and Regionalism in Asia (Yasuhei Taniguchi, Alan Yanovich & Jan Bohanes, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2007) (Japanese translation published in Kokusai-Shoji-Homu (Journal of the Japanese Institute of International Business Law) (Fall 2005))
  • Les Differentes Approches de la Securite Alimentaire (Comparaison Union europeen/Etats Unis), in La securite alimentaire dans l’union europeenne (Jacques Bourrinet & Francis Snyder, eds., CERIC, 2003) Mark A. Pollack
  • Managing US-EU Trade Relations through Mutual Recognition and Safe Harbor Agreements: “New” and “Global” Approaches to Transatlantic Economic Governance?, in Transatlantic Economic Disputes: The EU, the US, and the WTO 297-325 (Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann & Mark A. Pollack, eds., Oxford University Press, 2003)
  • “If Only We Were Elephants”: The Political Economy of the WTO’s Treatment of Trade and Environment Matters, in The Political Economy of International Trade Law: Essays in Honor of Robert E. Hudec 349-393 (Daniel L. M. Kennedy and James D. Southwick, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2002)

Book Reviews

  • A Transnational Take on Krisch’s Pluralist Postnational Law, 23 European Journal of International Law 565 (2012) (reviewing Nico Krisch, Beyond Constitutionalism: The Pluralist Structure of Postnational Law (Oxford University Press, 2010)) (review essay)
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  • Transnational Recursivity Theory: A Review Essay of Halliday & Carruther’s Bankrupt, 9 Socio-Economic Review 371 (2011) (reviewing Terence C. Halliday & Bruce G. Carruthers, Bankrupt: Global Lawmaking and Systemic Financial Crisis (Stanford University Press, 2010))

Other Publications

  • International Decision: United States—Measures Concerning the Importation, Marketing and Sale of Tuna and Tuna Products, 107 American Journal of International Law 192 (2013)

Contact Information

University of Minnesota Law School

Walter F. Mondale Hall | 229 19th Avenue South | Minneapolis, MN 55455

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