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Michael Tonry

McKnight Presidential Professor in Criminal Law and Policy

Michael Tonry

312 Mondale Hall
229–19th Ave. South
Minneapolis, MN 55455

612-625-1314

tonry001@umn.edu

University of North Carolina, A.B.
Yale University, LL.B.
Free University Amsterdam, Ph.D.

Professor Michael Tonry is the McKnight Presidential Professor of Criminal Law and Policy, director of the Institute on Crime and Public Policy of the University of Minnesota, and a Scientific Member of the Max Planck Institute on Comparative and International Criminal Law in Freiburg, Germany. Previously he was professor of law and public policy and director of the Institute of Criminology at Cambridge University. Since 2001, he has been a visiting professor of law and criminology at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland, and since 2003, a senior fellow in the Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement, Free University Amsterdam. He has been a Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, and has held visiting posts at the University of Leiden, The Netherlands, and the Max Planck Institute in Freiburg.

Professor Tonry is author or editor of a number of books including Between Prison and Probation (with Norval Morris; OUP 1991), Malign Neglect (OUP 1995), Sentencing Matters (OUP 1996), Thinking About Crime (OUP 2004), Punishment and Politics—Evidence and Emulation in the Making of English Penal Policy (Willan 2004), Punishing Race (OUP 2011), and, as editor, Prosecutors and Politics in Comparative Perspective (Chicago 2012) and Crime and Justice in America, 1975-2025 (Chicago 2013).

In earlier careers, Professor Tonry was a commercial lawyer with large law firms in Chicago and Philadelphia, practiced as a sole practitioner in Castine, Maine, and directed a private sector research firm. He founded and, from 1987 to 1990, directed the MacArthur Foundation-United States Department of Justice Program on Human Development and Criminal Behavior. From 1986 to 1990, he was editor and publisher of The Castine Patriot, a weekly small town newspaper; from 1990 to 1999, editor of Overcrowded Times—Solving the Prison Problem; and from 2000 to 2010, editor of Criminology in Europe. He founded and edits Crime and Justice - A Review of Research and three Oxford University Press book series: Studies in Crime and Public Policy, Oxford Handbooks on Criminology and Criminal Justice, and (with Antony Duff) Studies in Penal Theory and Philosophy.

For more information, please read Professor Tonry's CV.

 


PUBLICATIONS

Books

The Oxford Handbook of Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration (Oxford University Press, 2014) (co-editor with Sandra M. Bucerius)

Crime and Justice in America: 1975-2025 (University of Chicago Press, 2013) (editor)

Prosecutors and Politics: A Comparative Perspective (University of Chicago Press, 2012) (editor)

Crime and Justice in Scandinavia (University of Chicago Press, 2011) (co-editor with Tapio Lappi-Seppala)

Punishing Race: A Continuing American Dilemma (Oxford University Press, 2011)

Retributivism Has a Past: Has It a Future? (Oxford University Press, 2011) (editor)

The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice (Oxford University Press, 2011) (editor)

Why Punish? How Much?: A Reader on Punishment (Oxford University Press, 2011) (editor)

The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Public Policy (Oxford University Press, 2009) (editor)

Thinking about Punishment: Penal Policy Across Space, Time and Discipline (Ashgate, 2009)

Crime and Justice in the Netherlands (University of Chicago Press, 2007) (co-editor with Catrien Bijleveld)

Crime, Punishment, and Politics in Comparative Perspective (University of Chicago Press, 2007) (editor)

Crime and Punishment in Western Countries, 1980-99 (University of Chicago Press, 2005) (co-editor with David P. Farrington)

Cross-National Studies in Crime and Justice (U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2004) (co-editor with David P. Farrington & Patrick A. Langan)

Punishment and Politics: Evidence and Emulation in the Making of English Crime Control Policy (Willan, 2004), reprinted in part in Principled Sentencing: Readings on Theory and Policy (Andrew von Hirsch, Andrew Ashworth & Julian Roberts, eds., Hart Publishing, 3d ed., 2009)

The Future of Imprisonment (Oxford University Press, 2004) (editor)

Thinking about Crime: Sense and Sensibility in American Penal Culture (Oxford University Press, 2004), reprinted in part in Thinking about Punishment: Penal Policy Across Space, Time and Discipline (Ashgate, 2009)

Youth Crime and Youth Justice: Comparative and Cross-National Perspectives (University of Chicago Press, 2004) (co-editor with Anthony N. Doob)

Confronting Crime: Crime Control Policy under New Labour (Willan, 2003) (editor)

Ideology, Crime and Criminal Justice: A Symposium in Honour of Sir Leon Radzinowicz (Willan, 2002) (co-editor with Anthony E. Bottoms)

Reform and Punishment: The Future of Sentencing (Willan, 2002) (co-editor with Susan A. Rex)

Penal Reform in Overcrowded Times (Oxford University Press, 2001) (editor)

Sentencing and Sanctions in Western Countries (Oxford University Press, 2001) (co-editor with Richard Frase)

Prisons (University of Chicago Press, 1999) (co-editor with Joan Petersilia)

The Handbook of Crime & Punishment (Oxford University Press, 1998) (editor)

Youth Violence (University of Chicago Press, 1998) (co-editor with Mark H. Moore)

Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration: Comparative and Cross-National Perspectives (University of Chicago Press, 1997) (editor)

Sentencing Reform in Overcrowded Times: A Comparative Perspective (Oxford University Press, 1997) (co-editor with Kathleen Hatlestad)

Sentencing Matters (Oxford University Press, 1996), chapter four reprinted in Community Corrections: Probation, Parole, and Intermediate Sanctions (Joan Petersilia, ed., Oxford University Press, 1997); reprinted in part in Criminal Law: Text and Materials (C. M. V. Clarkson & Heather M. Keating, eds., Sweet & Maxwell, 5th ed., 2003), and in Thinking about Punishment: Penal Policy Across Space, Time and Discipline (Ashgate, 2009)

Building a Safer Society: Strategic Approaches to Crime Prevention (University of Chicago Press, 1995) (co-editor with David P. Farrington)

Intermediate Sanctions in Overcrowded Times (Northeastern University Press, 1995) (co-editor with Kate Hamilton)

Malign Neglect-Race, Crime, and Punishment in America (Oxford University Press, 1995), reprinted in part in Criminal Procedures: Cases, Statutes, and Executive Materials (Marc L. Miller & Ronald F. Wright, eds., Aspen Law & Business, 1998), in Foundations of Criminal Law (Leo Katz, Michael S. Moore & Stephen J. Morse, eds., Oxford University Press, 1999), in Sentencing Law and Policy: Cases, Statutes, and Guidelines (Nora Demleitner, Douglas Berman, Ronald Wright & Marc Miller, eds., Aspen Publishers, 2004; Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, 2d ed., 2007), in Criminal Law: A Contemporary Approach: Cases, Statutes, and Problems (Kate E. Bloch & Kevin C. McMunigal, eds., Aspen Publishers, 2005), in Social Science in Law: Cases and Materials (John Monahan & Laurens Walker, eds., Foundation Press, 6th ed., 2006), in Criminal Law: Cases and Materials (John Kaplan, Robert Weisberg & Guyora Binder, eds., Aspen Publishers, 4th ed., 2000; 5th ed., 2004; 6th ed., 2008), in Principled Sentencing: Readings on Theory and Policy (Andrew von Hirsch, Andrew Ashworth & Julian Roberts, eds., Hart Publishing, 3d ed., 2009), and in Thinking about Punishment: Penal Policy Across Space, Time and Discipline (Ashgate, 2009)

Beyond the Law: Crime in Complex Organizations (University of Chicago, 1993) (co-editor with Albert J. Reiss, Jr.)

Modern Policing (University of Chicago Press, 1992); translated into Portuguese, Policiamento Moderno (Jacy Cardia Ghirotti, tradução, Editora da Universidade de São Paulo, 2003) (co-editor with Norval Morris)

Human Development and Criminal Behavior: New Ways of Advancing Knowledge (Springer-Verlag, 1991) (with Lloyd E. Ohlin & David P. Farrington)

Between Prison and Probation: Intermediate Punishments in a Rational Sentencing System (Oxford University Press, 1990), reprinted in part in Correctional Contexts: Contemporary and Classical Readings (James W. Marquart & Jonathan R. Sorensen, eds., Roxbury, 1997), in The Criminal Justice System: Politics and Policies, (George F. Cole & Marc G. Gertz, eds., Wadsworth, 7th ed., 1998), in The Criminal Justice System: Politics and Policies (George F. Cole., Marc G. Gertz & Amy Bunger, eds., Wadsworth, 8th ed., 2001; 9th ed., 2004), and in Thinking about Punishment: Penal Policy Across Space, Time and Discipline (Ashgate, 2009) (with Norval Morris)

Drugs and Crime (University of Chicago Press, 1990) (co-editor with James Q. Wilson)

Family Violence (University of Chicago Press, 1989) (co-editor with Lloyd Ohlin)

Managing Appeals in Federal Courts (Federal Judicial Center, 1988) (with Robert A. Katzmann)

Drugs and Crime: Workshop Proceedings (Committee on Research on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council, 1987) (co-editor with Norval Morris & Jeffrey A. Roth)

Prediction and Classification: Criminal Justice Decision Making (University of Chicago Press, 1987) (co-editor with Don M. Gottfredson)

The Sentencing Commission and Its Guidelines (Northeastern University Press, 1987) (with Andrew von Hirsch & Kay A. Knapp)

Communities and Crime (University of Chicago Press, 1986); translated into Japanese in 2 volumes, Komyuniti to hanzai. 1. (Koichiro Ito, translator, Toshi Bohan Kenkyu Senta, 1994) and Komyuniti to hanzai. 2. (Koichiro Ito, translator, Toshi Bohan Kenkyu Senta, 1995) (co-editor with Albert J. Reiss, Jr.)

Reform and Punishment: Essays on Criminal Sentencing (University of Chicago Press, 1983) (co-editor with Franklin E. Zimring)

Research on Sentencing: The Search for Reform (National Academy Press, 1983) (co-editor with Alfred Blumstein, Jacqueline Cohen & Susan Martin)

Peer-Reviewed Journal Publications

"Nothing" Works: Sentencing "Reform" in Canada and the United States, 55 Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 465-79 (2013)

Learning Cross-Nationally from Josine Junger-Tas: How Knowledge About Other Places and Times Helps Us Better Understand Our Own, 19 European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 85-90 (2013)

Explanations of National Punishment Policies and their Implications for Central and Eastern Europe, 47 Kriminologiai Tanulmanyok (2011) (in Hungarian)

The U.S. Sentencing Commission's Best Response to Booker Is to Do Nothing, 24 Federal Sentencing Reporter 387-93 (2012)

Making Peace, Not a Desert: Penal Reform Should Be about Values Not Justice Reinvestment, 10 Criminology & Public Policy 637-49 (2011)

Less Imprisonment is No Doubt a Good Thing; More Policing Probably is Not, 10 Criminology & Public Policy 137-52 (2011)

Alle Radici delle Politiche Penali Americane: Una Storia Nazionale, Criminalia 2010: Annuario di scienze penalistiche 91-125 (2011)

"Public Criminology" and Evidence-based Policy, 9 Criminology & Public Policy 783-97 (2010)

The Costly Consequences of Populist Posturing: ASBOs, Victims, "Rebalancing", and Diminution of Support for Civil Liberties, 12 Punishment & Society 387-413 (2010)

The Social, Psychological, and Political Causes of Racial Disparities in the American Criminal Justice System, 39 Crime and Justice 273 (2010)

Explanations of American Punishment Policies: A National History, 11 Punishment & Society 377-94 (2009), reprinted in Thinking about Punishment: Penal Policy Across Space, Time and Discipline (Ashgate, 2009)

The Mostly Unintended Effects of Mandatory Penalties: Two Centuries of Consistent Findings, 38 Crime and Justice 65 (2009)

The Untold Story of America's First Sentencing Commission, 21 Federal Sentencing Reporter 265 (2009)

Crime and Human Rights: How Political Paranoia, Protestant Fundamentalism, and Constitutional Obsolescence Combined to Devastate Black America, 46 Criminology 1-33 (2008)

Learning from the Limitations of Deterrence Research, 37 Crime and Justice 279 (2008)

Onderzoek naar afschrikking: de noodzaak om klein te denken als we iets nieuws willen leren, 34(2) Justitiële Verkenningen 98-117 (2008)

The Malign Effects of Drug and Crime Control Policies on Black Americans, 37 Crime and Justice 1-44 (2008), reprinted in Thinking about Punishment: Penal Policy Across Space, Time and Discipline (Ashgate, 2009) (with Matthew Melewski)

Why Are American Penal Policies So Harsh?, 33 Japanese Journal of Sociological Criminology 11-28 (2008)

Crime Does Not Cause Punishment: The Impact of Sentencing Policy on Levels of Crime, 20 SA Crime Quarterly 13-20 (2007)

Crime, Criminal Justice, and Criminology in the Netherlands, 35 Crime and Justice 1-30 (2007) (with Catrien Bijleveld)

Determinants of Penal Policies, 36 Crime and Justice 1-48 (2007), reprinted in Thinking about Punishment: Penal Policy Across Space, Time and Discipline (Ashgate, 2009)

Looking Back to See the Future of Punishment in America, 74 Social Research 353-78 (2007)

Polityka Karna, Kultura Polityczna, A Zasady Konstytcyyjnet (Penal Policy, Political Culture, and Constitutional Obsolescence), 27 Archiwum Kriminologii (Polish Archives of Criminology) 95-110 (2007)

Criminology, Mandatory Minimums, and Public Policy, 5 Criminology and Public Policy 45-56 (2006)

Purposes and Functions of Sentencing, 34 Crime and Justice 1-53 (2006), reprinted in Thinking about Punishment: Penal Policy Across Space, Time and Discipline (Ashgate, 2009)

Cross-National Measures of Punitiveness, 33 Crime and Justice 347-376 (2005) (with Alfred Blumstein & Asheley Van Ness)

Punishment and Crime Across Space and Time, 33 Crime and Justice 1-39 (2005) (with David P. Farrington)

Varieties of Youth Justice, 31 Crime and Justice 1-20 (2004) (with Anthony Doob)

Why Aren't German Penal Policies Harsher and Imprisonment Rates Higher?, 5 German Law Journal 1187-1206 (2004)

Symbol, Substance, and Severity in Western Penal Policies, 3 Punishment & Society 517-36 (2001), reprinted in Thinking about Punishment: Penal Policy Across Space, Time and Discipline (Ashgate, 2009)

Unthought Thoughts: The Influence of Changing Sensibilities on Penal Policies, 3 Punishment & Society 167-181 (2001), reprinted in Mass Imprisonment: Social Causes and Consequences (David Garland, ed., Sage, 2001)

Federal Sentencing Can Be Made More Just, If the Sentencing Commission Wants to Make It So, 12 Federal Sentencing Reporter 83 (Sept/Oct 1999)

American Prisons at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century, 26 Crime and Justice 1-17 (1999) (with Joan Petersilia)

Community Penalties in the United States, 7(1) European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 5-22 (1999)

Parochialism in U.S. Sentencing Policy, 45 Crime & Delinquency 48-65 (1999)

Why Are U.S. Incarceration Rates So High?, 45 Crime & Delinquency 419-37 (1999), reprinted in 10(3) Overcrowded Times: Solving the Prison Problem 1, 8-16 (1999), in 25(1) The Angolite: The Prison Magazine 26-33 (2000), in Penal Reform in Overcrowded Times (Michael Tonry, ed., Oxford University Press, 2001), in Order Under Law: Readings in Criminal Justice (Robert C. Culbertson & Ralph A. Weisheit, eds., Waveland, 6th ed., 2002), and in Crime and Criminal Justice (William T. Lyons, Jr., ed., Ashgate, 2006)

A Comparative Perspective on Minority Groups, Crime, and Criminal Justice, 6 European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law, and Criminal Justice 60-73 (1998)

Intermediate Sanctions in Sentencing Guidelines, 23 Crime and Justice 199-253 (1998), reprinted in Criminal Justice: Concepts and Issues (Chris W. Eskridge, ed., Roxbury, 3rd ed., 1999; 4th ed., 2004)

Youth Violence in America, 24 Crime and Justice 1-26 (1998) (with Mark H. Moore)

Building Safer Societies: Crime Prevention in Developed Countries, 5(3) European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 49-60 (1997)

Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration, 21 Crime and Justice 1-30 (1997), reprinted in part in Criminal Law: Cases and Materials (Dan Kahan, Neal Katzal & Tracey Meares, eds., Foundation Press, 2007); reprinted in Thinking about Punishment: Penal Policy Across Space, Time and Discipline (Ashgate, 2009)

Forfeiture Laws, Practices and Controversies in the U.S., 5 European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law, and Criminal Justice 294-307 (1997)

Gender, Race, and Sentencing, 22 Crime and Justice 201-52 (1997) (with Kathleen Daly)

Controlling Prison Population Size, 4(3) European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 26-45 (1996)

Intermediate Sanctions, 20 Crime and Justice 99-144 (1996) (with Mary Lynch)

The Effects of the American War on Drugs on Black Americans, 1980-96, 4(2) European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 36-62 (1996)

Strategic Approaches to Crime Prevention, 19 Crime and Justice 1-20 (1995) (with David P. Farrington)

Racial Disparities in Courts and Prisons, 4 Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health 158 (1994)

Racial Politics, Racial Disparities, and the War on Crime, 40 Crime & Delinquency 475-94 (1994), reprinted in New Perspectives in Criminology (John E. Conklin, ed., Allyn & Bacon, 1995), in Race, Crime, and Justice (Barbara Hudson, ed., Dartmouth, 1996), in Examining the Justice Process: A Reader (James A. Inciardi, ed., Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1996), in Politics, Crime Control, and Culture (Stuart A. Scheingold, ed., Dartmouth, 1997), in The Criminal Justice System: Politics and Policies (George F. Cole & Marc G. Gertz, eds., West/Wadsworth, 7th ed., 1998), in Race and Ethnic Relations in the United States: Readings for the 21st Century (Christopher G. Ellison & W. Allen Martin, eds., Roxbury 1999), in Crime and Criminals: Contemporary and Classic Readings (Frank R. Scarpitti & Amie L. Nielsen, eds., Roxbury, 1999), in Perspectives: Race and Crime (Robert L. Bing III & Alejandro del Carmen, eds., Courselinks, 2000), in Race, Class, Gender and Justice in the United States (Charles E. Reasons, Darlene J. Conley & Julius Debro, eds., Allyn and Bacon, 2002), in Boundaries: Readings in Deviance, Crime, and Justice (Bradley R. E. Wright, Jr. & Ralph B. McNeal, Jr., eds., Prentice Hall, 2002), and in The Criminal Justice System: Politics and Policies (George F. Cole, Marc G. Gertz, & Amy Burger, eds., (West/Wadsworth, 8th ed., 2002; 9th ed., 2004)

Organizational Crime, 18 Crime and Justice 1-10 (1993), reprinted in part in Crimes of Privilege: Readings in White-Collar Crime (Neal Shover & John Paul Wright, eds., Oxford University Press, 2001)

Racial Disproportion in US Prisons, 34 British Journal of Criminology 97-116 (Special Issue 1994), reprinted in Prisons in Context (Roy King & Mike Maguire, eds., Oxford University Press, 1994), in Incarcerating Criminals: Prisons and Jails in Social and Environmental Context (Timothy J. Flanagan, James W. Marquart & Kenneth Adams, eds., Oxford University Press, 1998), in Criminal Justice Policy (Jodi S. Lane & Joan Petersilia, eds., Edward Elgar, 1998), and in Imprisonment (Roger Matthews, ed., Dartmouth, 1999)

Sentencing Commissions and Their Guidelines, 17 Crime and Justice 137-95 (1993)

The Failure of the U.S. Sentencing Commission's Guidelines, 39 Crime & Delinquency 131-49 (1993), reprinted in Courts and Justice: A Reader (G. Larry Mays & Peter R. Gregware, eds., Waveland, 1995), and in part in The Administration and Management of Criminal Justice Organizations: A Book of Readings (Stan Stojkovic, John Klofas & David Kalinich, eds., Waveland, 1999), and in Criminal Law: Cases and Materials (John Kaplan, Robert Weisberg & Guyora Binder, eds., Little, Brown, 3d ed., 1996; Aspen Law & Business, 4th ed., 2000; Aspen Publishers, 5th ed., 2004)

GAO Report Confirms Failure of U.S. Sentencing Commissions Guidelines, 5 Federal Sentencing Reporter 144 (1992)

Mandatory Penalties, 16 Crime and Justice 243-73 (1992), reprinted in Crime, Inequality, and the State (Mary E. Vogel, ed., Routledge, 2007), and in Thinking about Punishment: Penal Policy Across Space, Time and Discipline (Ashgate, 2009)

Salvaging the Sentencing Guidelines in Seven Easy Steps, 4 Federal Sentencing Reporter 355 (1992), reprinted in 10 Federal Sentencing Reporter 51-55 (1997), and in Federal Criminal Law and Its Enforcement (Norman Abrams & Sara Sun Beale, eds., West Publishing, 2d ed., 1993; 3d ed., 2000)

Mandatory Minimum Penalties and the U.S. Sentencing Commission's "Mandatory Guidelines," 4 Federal Sentencing Reporter 129 (1991)

The Politics and Processes of Sentencing Commissions, 37 Crime & Delinquency 307-29 (1991)

Overt and Latent Functions of Intensive Supervision Probation, 36 Crime & Delinquency 174-91 (1990), reprinted in America's Prisons: Opposing Viewpoints (David L. Bender, ed., Greenhaven Press, 5th ed., 1991; and subsequent eds.) and in Contemporary Community Corrections (Thomas Ellsworth, ed., Waveland Press, 2d ed., 2000)

Research on Drugs and Crime, 13 Crime and Justice 1-8 (1990)

Are the U.S. Sentencing Commission's Guidelines "Working Well"?, 2 Federal Sentencing Reporter 122 (1989)

Family Violence in Perspective, in 11 Crime and Justice 1-18 (1989) (with Lloyd Ohlin)

Structuring Sentencing, 10 Crime and Justice 267-337 (1988)

Prediction and Classification: Legal and Ethical Issues, 9 Crime and Justice 367-413 (1987), reprinted in part in Principled Sentencing (Andrew von Hirsch & Andrew Ashworth, eds., Northeastern University Press, 1992), and in Principled Sentencing: Readings in Theory & Policy (Andrew von Hirsch & Andrew Ashworth, eds., Hart Publishing, 2d ed., 1998)

More Sentencing Reform in America, [1982] Criminal Law Review 157-67 (1982)

Law Review Articles

Obsolescence and Immanence in Penal Theory and Policy, 105 Columbia Law Review 1233-75 (2005), reprinted in Thinking about Punishment: Penal Policy Across Space, Time and Discipline (Ashgate, 2009)

The Functions of Sentencing and Sentencing Reform, 58 Stanford Law Review 37-66 (2005)

Rethinking Unthinkable Punishment Policies in America, 46 UCLA Law Review 1751-91 (1999)

Intermediate Sanctions in Sentencing Reform, 2 University of Chicago Law School Roundtable 391-411 (1995)

Race and the War on Drugs, 1994 University of Chicago Legal Forum 25-81 (1994)

The Success of Judge Frankel's Sentencing Commission, 64 University of Colorado Law Review 713-22 (1993)

Public Prosecution and Hydro-engineering, 75 Minnesota Law Review 971 (1991)

Sentencing Guidelines and the Model Penal Code, 19 Rutgers Law Journal 823 (1988)

Foreword, 42 Maryland Law Review 1 (1982) (Symposium: Comparative Criminal Justice Issues in the United States, West Germany, England, and France)

Criminal Law: The Missing Element in Sentencing Reform, 35 Vanderbilt Law Review 607 (1982), reprinted in The Sentencing Process (Martin Wasik, ed., Dartmouth, 1997); translated into Japanese, 60 Waseda Law Review 671 (1985) (Tadashi Morijama, translator)

Real Offense Sentencing: The Model Sentencing and Corrections Act, 72 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 1550 (1981)

The Sentencing Commission in Sentencing Reform, 7 Hofstra Law Review 315 (1979)

Review Essay, 82 Yale Law Journal 1736 (1973) (reviewing National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, Marihuana: A Signal of Misunderstanding (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972) and Commission of Inquiry Into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs, Cannabis: A Report of the Commission of Inquiry Into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs (Information Canada, 1972))

Book Chapters

Race, Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration, in The Oxford Handbook of Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration (Sandra M. Bucerius & Michael Tonry, eds., Oxford University Press, 2014)

Evidence, Ideology, and Politics in the Making of American Criminal Justice Policy, in Crime and Justice in America, 1975-2025 (Michael Tonry, ed., University of Chicago Press, 2013)

Sentencing in America, 1975-2025, in Crime and Justice in America, 1975-2025 (Michael Tonry, ed., University of Chicago Press, 2013)

Understanding Crime Trends in Italy and Elsewhere, in Organized Crime, Corruption and Crime Prevention: Essays in Honor of Ernesto U. Savona (Stefano Caneppele & Francesco Calderoni, eds., Springer, 2013)

Why Aren't Penal Policies Harsher and Penal Experiences of Non-citizens Less Severe in Switzerland?, in Kriminologie, Kriminalpolitik und Strafrecht aus Internationaler Perspektive: Festschrift fur Martin Killias zum 65. Geburtstag (Andre Kuhn et al., eds., Bern : Stampfli, 2013)

"Wrongful" Acquittals and "Unduly Lenient" Sentences--Misconceived Problems that Provoke Unjust Solutions, in Principles and Values in Criminal Law and Criminal Justice: Essays in Honour of Andrew Ashworth (Lucia Zedner & Julian V. Roberts, eds., Oxford University Press, 2012)

Foreword, in Resisting Punitiveness in Europe?: Welfare, Human Rights and Democracy (Sonja Snacken & Els Dumortier, eds., Routledge, 2012)

Juvenile Justice Cross-Nationally Considered, in The Oxford Handbook of Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice (Barry Feld & Donna Bishop, eds., Oxford University Press, 2012) (with Colleen Chambers)

Prosecutors and Politics in Comparative Perspective, in Prosecutors and Politics in Comparative Perspective (Michael Tonry, ed., University of Chicago Press, 2012)

Race, Ethnicity, and Punishment, in The Oxford Handbook of Sentencing and Corrections (Joan Petersilia & Kevin Reitz, eds., Oxford University Press, 2012)

The Future of Sentencing and Its Control, in The Future of Criminology (Rolf Loeber & Brandon C. Welsh, eds., Oxford University Press, 2012)

Can Twenty-first Century Punishment Policies Be Justified in Principle?, in Retributivism Has a Past: Has It a Future? (Michael Tonry, ed., Oxford University Press, 2011)

Crime and Criminal Justice, in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice (Michael Tonry, ed., Oxford University Press, 2011)

Foreword, in Crime and Punishment in Contemporary Greece: International Comparative Perspectives (Leonidas K. Cheliotis & Sappho Xenakis, eds., Peter Lang, 2011)

Less Imprisonment, Less Crime: A Reply to Daniel Nagin, in Contemporary Issues in Criminological Theory and Research (Richard Rosenfeld, Kenna Quinet & Crystal A. Garcia, eds., Cengage, 2d ed., 2011)

Mandatory Penalties, in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice (Michael Tonry, ed., Oxford University Press, 2011)

Punishment, in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice (Michael Tonry, ed., Oxford University Press, 2011)

"Rebalancing the Criminal Justice System in Favour of the Victim": The Costly Consequences of Populist Rhetoric, in Hearing the Victim: Adversarial Justice, Crime Victims and the State (Anthony Bottoms & Julian V. Roberts, eds., Willan, 2010)

Evidence-based Penal Policies and Practices, in Gunter Kaiser Memorial Conference (Hans-Jorg Albrecht, ed., Max Planck Institute, 2010)

Foreword, in Offenders on Offending: Learning about Crime from Criminals (Wim Bernasco, ed., Willan, 2010)

Foreword, in Race, Crime and Criminal Justice (Anita Kalunta-Crumpton, ed., Palgrave Macmillan, 2010)

Foreword, in David C. May & Peter B. Wood, Ranking Correctional Punishments: Views from Offenders, Practitioners, and the Public (Carolina Academic Press, 2010)

The Questionable Relevance of Previous Convictions to Punishments for Later Crimes, in Previous Convictions at Sentencing: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives (Julian V. Roberts & Andrew von Hirsch, eds., Hart Pub., 2010)

Antisocial Behavior, in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Public Policy (Michael Tonry, ed., Oxford University Press, 2009) (with Harriet Bildsten)

Crime and Public Policy, in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Public Policy (Michael Tonry, ed., Oxford University Press, 2009)

Foreword, in Sex Offender Laws: Failed Policies, New Directions (Richard G. Wright, ed., Springer Publishing Company, 2009)

Foreword, in David A. Green, When Children Kill: Penal Populism and Political Culture (Oxford University Press, 2008)

Why Have Dutch Penal Policies and Practices become More Punitive?, in Op het rechte pad: liber amicorum Peter J.P. Tak (Ybo Buruma, ed., Wolf Legal Publishers, 2008)

Penal Policy, Political Culture, and Constitutional Obsolescence, in Penal Policy, Justice Reform and Social Exclusion: Plenary Presentations held at the Fifth Annual Conference of the European Society of Criminology, 31 August - 3 September 2005, Krakow, Poland (Kauko Aromaa, ed., European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, 2007)

Preface, in Legitimacy and Criminal Justice: International Perspectives (Tom R. Tyler , ed., Russell Sage Foundation, 2007)

The Prospects for Institutionalization of Restorative Justice Initiatives in Western Countries, in Institutionalizing Restorative Justice (Ivo Aertsen, Tom Daems & Luc Robert, eds., Willan, 2006)

¿Debe México armonizar su sistema punitivo de Derecho Penal?, in Hacia la unificación del Derecho Penal: logros y desafíos de la armonización y homologación en México y en el mundo (Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Penales, Academia Mexicana de Ciencias Penales & Max-Planck-Institut für Ausländisches und Internationales Strafrecht, eds., Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Penales, 2006)

Crime, in Handbook of Social Problems: A Comparative International Perspective (George Ritzer, ed., Sage Publications, 2004), reprinted in Contemporary Readings in Social Problems (Anna Leon-Guerrero & Kristine M. Zentgraf, eds., Pine Forge Press, 2009)

Criminology and Criminal Justice Research in Europe, in Punishment, Places and Perpetrators: Developments in Criminology and Criminal Justice Research (Gerben Bruinsma, Henk Elffers & Jan de Keijser, eds., Willan, 2004)

Has the Prison a Future?, in The Future of Imprisonment (Michael Tonry, ed., Oxford University Press, 2004)

Criminology and Public Policy in the US and UK, in The Criminological Foundations of Penal Policy: Essays in Honour of Roger Hood (Lucia Zedner & Andrew Ashworth, eds., Oxford University Press, 2003) (with David A. Green)

Evidence, Elections and Ideology in the Making of Criminal Justice Policy, in Confronting Crime: Crime Control Policy under New Labour (Michael Tonry, ed., Willan, 2003)

Is Sentencing in England and Wales Institutionally Racist?, in Confronting Crime: Crime Control Policy under New Labour (Michael Tonry, ed., Willan, 2003) (with Amanda Matravers)

Reducing the Prison Population, in Confronting Crime: Crime Control Policy under New Labour (Michael Tonry, ed., Willan, 2003)

"Transnational" "Organized" "Crime," in The Containment of Transnational Organized Crime: Comments on the UN Convention of December 2000 (Hans-Jörg Albrecht & Cyrille Fijnault, eds., Max-Planck-Institute, 2002)

Community Penalties in the United States, in Community Sanctions and Measures in Europe and North America (Hans-Jörg Albrecht & Anton van Kalmthout, eds., Max-Planck Institute, 2002)

Foreword, in Sentencing and Society: International Perspectives (Cyrus Tata & Neil Hutton, eds., Ashgate, 2002)

Reconsidering Sentencing and Punishment in England and Wales, in Reform and Punishment: The Future of Sentencing (Sue A. Rex & Michael Tonry, eds., Willan, 2002) (with Sue A. Rex)

Setting Sentencing Policy through Guidelines, in Reform and Punishment: The Future of Sentencing (Sue A. Rex & Michael Tonry, eds., Willan, 2002)

The Death Penalty in the United States, in Zwischen Mediation und Lebenslang: Neue Wege in der Kriminalitätsbekämpfurg (Volker Dittmar, André Kuhn, Renie Maag & Hans Wiprächtiger, eds., Verlag Rüegger, 2002)

Penal Policy at the Beginning of the 21st Century, in Penal Reform in Overcrowded Times (Michael Tonry, ed., Oxford University Press, 2001)

Punishment Policies and Patterns in Western Countries, in Sentencing and Sanctions in Western Countries (Michael Tonry & Richard S. Frase, eds., Oxford University Press, 2001), reprinted in Thinking about Punishment: Penal Policy Across Space, Time and Discipline (Ashgate, 2009)

Punishment Policies and Politics in America, in Invitation to Corrections (Clemens Bartollas, ed., Allyn and Bacon, 2001)

Foreword, in Hans Boutellier, Crime and Morality: The Significance of Criminal Justice in Post-Modern Culture (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000)

Building Better Policies on Better Knowledge, in The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Symposium on the 30th Anniversary of the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, 1998)

Crime and Punishment in America, in The Handbook of Crime & Punishment (Michael Tonry, ed., Oxford University Press, 1998)

Interchangeability, Desert Limits, and Equivalence of Function, in Principled Sentencing: Readings in Theory and Practice (Andrew von Hirsch & Andrew Ashworth, Hart Publishing, 2d ed., 1998)

Intermediate Sanctions, in The Handbook of Crime & Punishment (Michael Tonry, ed., Oxford University Press, 1998)

Transfer of Criminal Justice Policies Across National Boundaries, in Internationale Perspektiven in Kriminologie und Strafrecht: Festschrift für Günther Kaiser zum 70. Geburtstag (Hans-Jörg Albrecht et al., eds., Duncker & Humblot, 1998)

Gewinnabschöpfung in den USA, in Möglichkeiten der Gewinnabschöpfung zur Bekämpfung der Organisierten Kriminalität: Bestandsaufnahme und Perspektiven im internationalen Vergleich (Michael Kilchling & Günther Kaiser, eds., Max-Planck Institute, 1997)

Law and Crime Prevention, in Integrating Crime Prevention Strategies: Propensity and Opportunity 69-88 (Per-Olof Wikström, ed., National Council for Crime Prevention (Brottsförebyggande rådet) (BRÅ), 1995)

Sentencing Reform Across National Boundaries, in The Politics of Sentencing Reform (Chris Clarkson & Rod Morgan, eds., Oxford University Press, 1995)

Proportionality, Parsimony, and Interchangeability of Punishments, in Penal Theory and Practice: Tradition and Innovation in Criminal Justice (Antony Duff et al., eds., Manchester University Press, 1994), reprinted in A Reader on Punishment (Antony Duff & David Garland, eds., Oxford University Press, 1994), in part in Principled Sentencing: Readings in Theory and Practice (Andrew von Hirsch & Andrew Ashworth, eds., Hart Publishing, 2d ed., 1998), in Sentencing and Penal Policy in Canada: Cases, Materials, and Commentary (Allan Manson, Patrick Healy & Gary Trotter, eds., Emond Montgomery Publications, 2000), in Sentencing and Penal Policy in Canada: Cases, Materials, and Commentary (Allan Manson et al., eds., Emond Montgomery Publications, 2d ed., 2008), in Thinking about Punishment: Penal Policy Across Space, Time and Discipline (Ashgate, 2009), and in Why Punish? How Much?: A Reader on Punishment (Michael Tonry, ed., Oxford University Press, 2011)

Foreword, in Discretion in Criminal Justice: The Tension between Individualization and Uniformity (Lloyd E. Ohlin & Frank J. Remington, eds., State University of New York Press, 1993)

Judges and Sentencing Policy, in Sentencing, Judicial Discretion and Training (Colin Munro & Martin Wasik, eds., Sweet & Maxwell, 1992)

A Sentencing Commission for California?, in Growth and Its Influence on Correctional Policy: Perspectives on the Report of the Blue Ribbon Commission: Proceedings (Guggenheim Criminal Justice Program, 1991)

Enforcing Sentencing Guidelines: Plea Bargaining and Review Mechanisms, in Andrew von Hirsch, Kay Knapp, and Michael Tonry, The Sentencing Commission and Its Guidelines (Northeastern University Press, 1987), reprinted in part in Principled Sentencing (Andrew von Hirsch & Andrew Ashworth, eds., Northeastern University Press, 1992) (with John C. Coffee, Jr.)

Sentencing Commissions and Sentencing Guidelines--The Second Generation, in Sentencing Reform: Guidance or Guidelines 22-45 (Martin Wasik & Ken Pease, eds., Manchester University Press, 1987)

Sentencing Guidelines and their Effects, in Andrew von Hirsch, Kay Knapp & Michael Tonry, The Sentencing Commission and Its Guidelines (Northeastern University Press, 1987), reprinted in part in Criminal Procedures: Cases, Statutes, and Executive Materials (Marc L. Miller & Ronald F. Wright, eds., Aspen Law & Business, 1st ed., 1998; Aspen Publishers, 2d ed., 2003; 3d ed., 2007)

Black Crime, Black Victims, in The Pursuit of Criminal Justice: Essays from the Chicago Center 279-286 (Gordon Hawkins & Franklin E. Zimring, eds., University of Chicago Press, 1984) (originally published as a series of articles under the title "Blacks, Crime Rates, and Prisons" in the Chicago Tribune, Aug. 18-21, 1980) (with Norval Morris)

Hard Choices: Critical Trade-offs in the Implementation of Sentencing Reform through Guidelines, in Reform and Punishment: Essays on Criminal Sentencing 155-203 (Michael Tonry & Franklin E. Zimring, eds., University of Chicago Press, 1983) (with John C. Coffee, Jr.)

Sentencing Reforms and their Impacts, in Research on Sentencing: The Search for Reform, vol. 2, 305-459 (Alfred Blumstein et al., eds., National Academy Press, 1983) (with Jacqueline Cohen)

Sentencing Reform in America, in Reshaping the Criminal Law: Essays in Honour of Glanville Williams (Peter Glazebrook, ed., Stevens, 1978), reprinted in The Pursuit of Criminal Justice: Essays from the Chicago Center (Gordon Hawkins & Franklin E. Zimring, eds., University of Chicago Press, 1984), and in Thinking about Punishment: Penal Policy Across Space, Time and Discipline (Ashgate, 2009) (with Norval Morris)

Juvenile Justice and the National Crime Commissions, in Pursuing Justice for the Child 281-98 (Margaret Rosenheim, ed., University of Chicago Press, 1976)

Documents and Reports

Successful Transition and Reentry for Safer Communities: A Call to Action for Parole (Council of State Governments, 2006) (with Peggy Burke)

Fragmentation of Sentencing and Corrections in America, in Sentencing & Corrections: Issues for the 21st Century (U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 1999), reprinted in 10 Overcrowded Times: Solving the Prison Problem 1 (Aug. 1999), and in Penal Reform in Overcrowded Times (Michael Tonry, ed., Oxford University Press, 2001)

Reconsidering Indeterminate and Structured Sentencing, in Sentencing & Corrections: Issues for the 21st Century (U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 1999)

Intermediate Sanctions in Sentencing Guidelines (U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, 1997)

Sentencing Reform Impacts (U.S. Dept. of Justice, National Institute of Justice, Office of Communication and Research Utilization, 1987)

Hypnotically Refreshed Testimony: Enhanced Memory or Tampering with the Evidence? (U.S. Dept. of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 1985) (with Martin T. Orne & others)

Deinstitutionalization of Corrections and Its Implications for the Residual Prisoner (U.S. Department of Justice, 1980) (prepared for the Sixth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (Caracas, Venezuela, Aug. 25 - Sept. 5, 1980))

Standards Relating to Transfer between Courts (Ballinger Pub. Co., 1980) (special editor) (standards recommended by the IJA-ABA Joint Commission on Juvenile Justice Standards; approved by the House of Delegates, American Bar Association, 1979)

Edited Symposia & Journals

Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, vols. 1-42 (University of Chicago Press, 1979-2013) (editor)

Entries in Reference Works

Prisons and Imprisonment, in The International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Neil J. Smelser & Paul B. Baltes, eds., Elsevier, 2001)

Prison, in The 2000 World Book Year Book (World Book International, 2000)

Prison, in The 1999 World Book Year Book (World Book International, 1999)

Prison, in The 1998 World Book Year Book (World Book International, 1998)

Prison, in The 1997 World Book Year Book (World Book International, 1997)

Prison, in The 1996 World Book Year Book (World Book International, 1996)

Crime, in The 1995 World Book Year Book (World Book International, 1995)

Mandatory Sentencing, in Encyclopedia of Drugs and Alcohol (Jerome H. Jaffe, editor in chief, Macmillan Library Reference USA, 1995)

Prison, in The 1995 World Book Year Book (World Book International, 1995)

Special Report on New Proposals for Fighting Crime in America, in The 1995 World Book Year Book (World Book International, 1995)

The Rockefeller Drug Laws, in Encyclopedia of Drugs and Alcohol (Jerome H. Jaffe, editor in chief, Macmillan Library Reference USA, 1995)

Prison, in The 1994 World Book Year Book (World Book International, 1994)

Special Report on the Growing U.S. Prison Population, in The 1993 World Book Yearbook (World Book Publications, 1993)

Jury Sentencing, 4 Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice 1465 (Sanford H. Kadish, editor in chief, Free Press, 1983)

Sentencing Councils, 4 Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice 1483 (Sanford H. Kadish, editor in chief, Free Press, 1983)

The Allocation of Sentencing Authority in the United States, 4 Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice 1432 (Sanford H. Kadish, editor in chief, Free Press, 1983)

Editorials, Commentary & Letters

Treating Juveniles as Adult Criminals: An Iatrogenic Violence Prevention Strategy if Ever There Was One, 32(4), supp. 1 American Journal of Preventive Medicine 3-4 (2007)

Does Parole Work?, Baltimore Sun, Dec. 19, 1981, at 32

Other Publications

Keynote Address, in Sentencing in South Africa: Conference Report 4 (Open Society Foundation of South Africa, 2006)

Why Are Europe's Crime Rates Falling?, 4:2 Criminology in Europe (Newsletter of the European Society of Criminology) 1, 8-11 (July 2005)

Cambridge Institute of Criminology, 3:3 Criminology in Europe (Newsletter of the European Society of Criminology) 1, 20-22 (Nov. 2004)

President Clinton, Mandatory Minimums, and Disaffirmative Action, 12(6) Tikkun 32, 71-73 (Nov/Dec 1997)

Between Prison and Probation: The Development of Intermediate Sanctions in Western Countries or Be Careful What You Ask for in Community Corrections Programmes Because You May Get It: The Sixth Eve Saville Memorial Lecture (Institute for the Study and Treatment of Delinquency, 1995)

Twenty Years of Sentencing Reform: Steps Forward, Steps Backward, 78 Judicature 169-72 (1995), reprinted in Law Alumni News (University of Minnesota) (1996), in The American Court System (Marilyn D. McShane & Frank P. Williams, eds., Garland, 1997), in Criminal Justice Policy (Jodi S. Lane & Joan Petersilia, eds., Edward Elgar 1998), and in Judicial Politics: Readings from Judicature (Elliot E. Slotnick, ed., American Judicature Society, 2d ed., 1999; CQ Press, 3d ed., 2005)

Sentencing Guidelines, Disadvantaged Offenders, and Racial Disparities, 14(3/4) Report from the Institute for Philosophy & Public Policy 7-13 (Summer/Fall 1994)

Sentencing Reforms and Racial Disparities, 78 Judicature 118-19, 159-60 (1994)

Tribute to Sheldon L. Messinger, 80 California Law Review 310 (1992) (with Norval Morris)

Between Prison and Probation: Intermediate Punishments in a Rational Sentencing System, NIJ Reports 8-10 (Jan/Feb 1990), reprinted in Principled Sentencing (Andrew von Hirsch & Andrew Ashworth, eds., Northeastern University Press, 1992) (with Norval Morris)

Presiding in Criminal Court: An Introduction, 72 Judicature 7 (1988) (with Norval Morris)

Professional Mediation Services for Prisoners' Complaints, 67 American Bar Association Journal 294 (1981) (with William L. Reynolds)

COURSES

Comparative Criminal Procedure
Philosophy of Law (Punishment)
Sentencing Law and Policy

Seminars

Advanced Criminal Law