Herbert M. Kritzer

  • Marvin J. Sonosky Chair of Law and Public Policy
  • Haverford College, B.A.
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Ph.D.

Office: 326
Mondale Hall, 229 19th Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55455

Professor Herbert M. Kritzer joined the Law School faculty July 1, 2009, from William Mitchell College of Law, where he taught empirical legal studies, politics of legal policy, and statistics for lawyers and directed the Center for the Empirical Study of Legal Practice since 2007. He is a leading scholar on the legal profession, the work of lawyers and other aspects of the American civil justice system, and other common law systems. He is an affiliated professor in the University of Minnesota’s Department of Political Science.

Previously, Professor Kritzer was a professor of political science and law at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, chaired the Department of Political Science from 1996-99, and was director of the Legal Studies Program from 2000-04. He was a visiting fellow, Faculty of Law, University College London, in 1986-87. He taught political science as an assistant professor at Rice University in 1975-78 and as a visiting assistant professor at Indiana University in 1974-75. He was an instructor at the Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research Summer Institute, University of Michigan, in 1974-77.

Professor Kritzer has written more than 100 journal articles and book chapters. His most recent book is a study of contingency fee legal practice in the United States, Risks, Reputations, and Rewards (Stanford, 2004). He co-edited with Peter Cane The Oxford Handbook of Empirical Legal Research (Oxford University Press 2010). He is associate editor of the Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, the former editor of Law & Society Review, and a regular peer reviewer for leading political science, law, and social science journals. His primary research and writing interests are U.S. and comparative judicial process topics and the legal profession. He has received numerous grants and awards, including several from the National Science Foundation.

Professor Kritzer received a B.A. in sociology, magna cum laude, from Haverford College in 1969 and a Ph.D. in political science from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1974.

For further information, please visit Professor Kritzer’s personal web page.


Social Science Evidence



  • Advanced Introduction to Empirical Legal Research (Edward Elgar, 2021)
  • Judicial Selection in the States: Politics and the Struggle for Reform (Cambridge University Press, 2020)
  • When Lawyers Screw Up: Improving Access to Justice for Legal Malpractice Victims (University Press of Kansas, 2018) Neil Vidmar
  • Justices on the Ballot: Continuity and Change in State Supreme Court Elections (Cambridge University Press, 2015)
  • Lawyers at Work (Quid Pro Books, 2015)
  • The Oxford Handbook of Empirical Legal Research (Oxford University Press, 2010) (co-editor) Peter Cane
  • Risks, Reputations, and Rewards: Contingency Fee Legal Practice in the United States (Stanford University Press, 2004)
  • In Litigation: Do the “Haves” Still Come Out Ahead? (Stanford University Press, 2003) (co-editor) Susan S. Silbey
  • Legal Systems of the World: A Political, Social, and Cultural Encyclopedia (ABC-CLIO, 2002) (editor) (Best Book 2002, Society of School Librarians International; Editors’ Choice 2002 Reference Source, American Library Association; Outstanding Reference Source 2003, Reference and User Services Association)
  • Legal Advocacy: Lawyers and Nonlawyers at Work (University of Michigan Press, 1998)
  • Courts, Law, and Politics in Comparative Perspective (Yale University Press, 1996) Herbert Jacob, Erhard Blankenburg, Doris Marie Provine & Joseph Sanders
  • Let’s Make a Deal: Understanding the Negotiation Process in Ordinary Litigation (University of Wisconsin Press, 1991)
  • The Justice Broker: Lawyers and Ordinary Litigation (Oxford University Press, 1990)

Journal Articles

  • What Do Americans Want in Their State Judges?, 105 Judicature 48-59 (Spr. 2021)
  • Polarized Justice? Changing Patterns of Decision-Making in the Federal Courts, 28 Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy 309-394 (2019)
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  • Judicial Elections in the 2010s, 67 DePaul Law Review 387-423 (2018)  
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  • Lawyers’ Professional Liability: Comparative Perspectives, 24 International Journal of the Legal Profession 73-89 (2017)
  • Impact of Judicial Elections on Judicial Decisions, 12 Annual Review of Law and Social Science 353-371 (2016)
  • Roll-Off in State Court Elections: The Impact of the Straight-Ticket Voting Option, 4 Journal of Law and Courts 409-435 (2016)
  • Lawyers on Trial: Juror Hostility to Defendants in Legal Malpractice Trials, 44 Hofstra Law Review 375-399 (2015) Neil Vidmar
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  • An Exploration of “Non-Economic” Damages in Civil Jury Awards, 55 William & Mary Law Review 971-1027 (2014) Guangya Liu & Neil Vidmar
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  • It’s the Law Schools Stupid! Explaining the Continuing Increase in the Number of Lawyers, 19 International Journal of the Legal Profession 209-225 (2013)
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  • Law Schools and the Continuing Growth of the Legal Profession, 3:3 Onati Socio-Legal Series 450-473 (2013)
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  • Private Enforcement, 17 Lewis & Clark Law Review 637-722 (2013) Stephen B. Burbank & Sean Farhang
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  • The Trials and Tribulations of Counting “Trials”, 62 DePaul Law Review 415-442 (2013)
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  • Local News of Civil Litigation: All the Litigation News That’s Fit to Print or Broadcast, 96 Judicature 16-22 (2012) Robert E. Drechsel
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  • Competitiveness in State Supreme Court Elections, 1946-2009, 8 Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 237-259 (2011)
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  • Private Enforcement of Statutory and Administrative Law in the United States, 3-4/2011 Int’l Lis: Corriere Trimestrale della Litigation nternazionale 153-163 (2011) Stephen B. Burbank & Sean Farhang
  • The Antecedents of Disputes: Complaining and Claiming, 1:6 Onati Socio-Legal Series (2011)
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  • Legal Mechanic: Where Are We Going? The Generalist vs. Specialist Challenge, 47 Tulsa Law Review 51-65 (2011) (reviewing Robert P. Burns, The Death of the American Trial (University of Chicago Press, 2009) and Lawrence Baum, Specializing the Courts (University of Chicago Press, 2011)) (review essay)
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  • Constituencies in Judicial Retention Processes: Comment, 166 Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 115-119 (2010)
  • Examining the Real Demand for Legal Services, 37 Fordham Urban Law Journal 255-272 (2010)
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  • Taking and Testing Jurisprudential Regimes Seriously: A Response to Lax and Rader, 72 Journal of Politics 285-288 (2010) Mark J. Richards
  • Empirical Legal Studies Before 1940: A Bibliographic Essay, 6 Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 925-968 (2009)
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  • Fee Regimes and the Cost of Civil Justice, 28 Civil Justice Quarterly 344-366 (2009)
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  • The Arts of Persuasion in Science and Law: Conflicting Norms in the Courtroom, 72 Law and Contemporary Problems 41-61 (2009)
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  • Daubert in the Law Office: Routinizing Procedural Change, 5 Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 109-42 (2008)
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  • To Lawyer, or Not to Lawyer: Is That the Question?, 5 Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 875-906 (2008)
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  • Daubert in the States: Diffusion of a New Approach to Expert Evidence in Court, 4 Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 983-1006 (2007) Darryn Beckstrom
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  • Defending Torts: What Should We Know? 1 Journal of Tort Law (2007)
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  • Law is the Mere Continuation of Politics by Different Means: American Judicial Selection in the 21st Century, 56 DePaul Law Review 423-67 (2007)
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  • The Business of State Supreme Courts, Revisited, 4 Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 427-39 (2007) Paul Brace, Melinda Gann Hall & Brent Boyea
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  • Toward a Theorization of Craft, 16 Social & Legal Studies 321-40 (2007)
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  • Does Chevron Matter? 28 Law & Policy 444-69 (2006) Mark J. Richards & Joseph L. Smith
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  • The Commodification of Insurance Defense Practice, 59 Vanderbilt Law Review 2053-2094 (2006), reprinted in 56 Defense Law Journal 647-92 (2007)
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  • “Loser Pays” Doesn’t, Legal Affairs 20 (Nov./Dec. 2005)
  • The American Public’s Assessment of the Rehnquist Court, 89 Judicature 168-76 (2005)
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  • The Influence of Law in the Supreme Court’s Search-and-Seizure Jurisprudence, 33 American Politics Research 33-55 (2005) Mark J. Richards
  • Advocacy and Rhetoric vs. Scholarship and Evidence in the Debate over Contingency Fees: A Reply to Professor Brickman, 82 Washington University Law Quarterly 477-507 (2004)
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  • American Adversarialism, 38 Law & Society Review 349-383 (2004) (reviewing Robert A. Kagan, Adversarial Legalism: The American Way of Law (Harvard University Press, 2002)) (review essay)
  • Disappearing Trials?: A Comparative Perspective, 1 Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 735-54 (2004)
  • Jurisprudential Regimes and Supreme Court Decision Making: The Lemon Regime and Establishment Clause Cases, 37 Law & Society Review 827-40 (2003) Mark J. Richards
  • Jurisprudential Regimes in Supreme Court Decision Making, 96 American Political Science Review 305-20 (2002) Mark J. Richards
  • Lawyer Fees and Lawyer Behavior in Litigation: What Does the Empirical Literature Really Say?, 80 Texas Law Review 1943-83 (2002)
  • Seven Dogged Myths Concerning Contingency Fees, 80 Washington University Law Quarterly 739-94 (2002)
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  • The Future Role of “Law Workers”: Rethinking the Forms of Legal Practice and the Scope of Legal Education, 44 Arizona Law Review 917-38 (2002)
  • From Litigators of Ordinary Cases to Litigators of Extraordinary Cases: Stratification of the Plaintiffs’ Bar in the Twenty-first Century, 51 DePaul Law Review 219-40 (2001)
  • Public Perceptions of Civil Jury Verdicts, 85 Judicature 78-82 (2001)
  • The Fracturing Legal Profession: The Case of Plaintiffs’ Personal Injury Lawyers, 8 International Journal of the Legal Profession 225-50 (2001)
  • The Impact of Bush v. Gore on Public Perceptions and Knowledge of the Supreme Court, 85 Judicature 32-38 (2001), reprinted in Elliot Slotnick, Judicial Politics: Readings from Judicature (CQ Press, 3rd ed., 2005)
  • Do the “Haves” Still Come Out Ahead?, 33 Law & Society Review 803-10 (1999) Joel B. Grossman & Stewart Macaulay
  • Lawyers Seeking Clients, Clients Seeking Lawyers: Sources of Contingency Fee Cases and Their Implications for Case Handling, 21 Law & Policy 347-75 (1999) Jayanth Krishnan
  • The Professions are Dead, Long Live the Professions: Legal Practice in a Postprofessional World, 33 Law & Society Review 713-59 (1999), excerpts reprinted in Before the Law: An Introduction to the Legal Process (John Bonsignore et. al., eds., Houghton Mifflin, 7th ed., 2002) and in Beyond Degrees: Professional Learning for Knowledge Services (Guy St. Clair, ed., K.G. Saur, 2003)
  • Contingent-Fee Lawyers and Their Clients: Settlement Expectations, Settlement Realities, and Issues of Control in the Lawyer-Client Relationship, 23 Law and Social Inquiry 795-821 (1998), reprinted in Lawyers and the Legal Profession (Tanina Rostain, ed., Ashgate, 2008)
  • Evaluating the American Law Institute: Research Issues and Prospects, 23 Law and Social Inquiry 667-71 (1998)
  • Familiarity Breeds Respect: How Wisconsin Citizens View Their Courts, 82 Judicature 58-64 (1998) John Voelker
  • The Shadow of Punitives: An Unsuccessful Effort to Bring It into View, 1998 Wisconsin Law Review 157-168 (1998) Frances Kahn Zemans
  • The Wages of Risk: The Returns of Contingency Fee Legal Practice, 47 DePaul Law Review 267-319 (1998)
  • Investing in Cases: Can You Profit from Contingency Fee Work?, 70 Wisconsin Lawyer 11 (Aug. 1997)
  • Holding Back the Flood Tide: The Real Role of Contingent Fee Lawyers, 70 Wisconsin Lawyer 10-3, 62-4 (Mar. 1997), reprinted in 31 Michigan Trial Lawyers Association Quarterly 21-6 (1997)
  • Contingency Fee Lawyers as Gatekeepers in the American Civil Justice System, 81 Judicature 22-9 (1997), reprinted in Elliot Slotnick, Judicial Politics: Readings from Judicature, (CQ Press, 3rd ed., 2005)
  • Rethinking Barriers to Legal Practice: It Is Time to Repeal Unauthorized Practice of Law Statutes, 81 Judicature 100-103 (1997)
  • The Data Puzzle: The Nature of Interpretation in Quantitative Research, 40 American Journal of Political Science 1-32 (1996)
  • “Data, Data, Data, Drowning in Data”: Crafting The Hollow Core, 21 Law and Social Inquiry 761-804 (1996) (reviewing John P. Heinz, Edward O. Laumann, Robert L. Nelson, & Robert H. Salisbury, The Hollow Core: Private Interests in National Policy Making (Harvard University Press, 1993)) (review essay)
  • Interpretation and Validity Assessment in Qualitative Research: The Case of H.W. Perry’s Deciding to Decide, 19 Law and Social Inquiry 687-724 (1994) (reviewing H. W. Perry, Jr., Deciding to Decide: Agenda Setting in the United States Supreme Court (Harvard University Press, 1991)) (review essay)
  • Lawyers’ Fees and the Holy Grail: Where Should Clients Search for Value?, 77 Judicature 187-90 (1994)
  • Adult Guardianships in Wisconsin: How is the System Working?, 76 Marquette Law Review 549-75 (1993) Helen Marks Dicks & Betsy J. Abramson
  • Local Legal Culture and the Control of Litigation, 27 Law & Society Review 535-57 (1993) Frances Kahn Zemans
  • Rule 11: Moving Beyond the Cosmic Anecdote, 75 Judicature 269-72 (1992) Lawrence C. Marshall & Frances Kahn Zemans
  • The English Rule, 78 ABA Journal 54-8 (Nov. 1992)
  • The Use and Impact of Rule 11, 86 Northwestern University Law Review 943-86 (1992) Lawrence C. Marshall & Frances Kahn Zemans
  • Abel and the Professional Project: The Institutional Analysis of the Legal Profession, 16 Law and Social Inquiry 529-52 (1991) (review essay)
  • Propensity to Sue in England and the United States of America: Blaming and Claiming in Tort Cases, 18 Journal of Law and Society 400-427 (1991)
  • The Aftermath of Injury: Cultural Factors in Compensation Seeking in Canada and the United States, 25 Law & Society Review 499-543 (1991) W.A. Bogart & Neil Vidmar
  • To Confront or Not to Confront: Measuring Claiming Rates in Discrimination Grievances, 25 Law & Society Review 875-87 (1991) Neil Vidmar & W.A. Bogart
  • Substance and Method in the Use of Ratio Variables, or the Spurious Nature of Spurious Correlation?, 52 Journal of Politics 243-54 (1990)
  • A Comparative Perspective on Settlement and Bargaining in Personal Injury Cases, 14 Law and Social Inquiry 167-86 (1989) (reviewing Hazel Genn, Hard Bargaining: Out of Court Settlement in Personal Injury Actions (Oxford University Press, 1988)) (review essay)
  • Public Notification Campaigns in Mass Litigation: The Dalkon Shield Case, 13 Justice System Journal 220-39 (1988-89)
  • Fee Arrangements and Negotiation, 21 Law & Society Review 341-48 (1987) (research note), selections reprinted in Lawyer Negotiation: Theory, Practice and Law (Jay Folberg & Dwight Golann, eds., Aspen, 2d ed., 2006)
  • Adjudication to Settlement: Shading in the Gray, 70 Judicature 161-65 (1986), excerpts reprinted in Simon Roberts & Michael Palmer, Dispute Processes: ADR and the Primary Forms of Decision-Making (Cambridge, 2d ed., 2005)
  • The Impact of Fee Arrangement on Lawyer Effort, 19 Law & Society Review 251-78 (1985) William L.F. Felstiner, Austin Sarat & David M. Trubek
  • Courts and Litigation Investment: Why Do Lawyers Spend More Time on Federal Cases?, 9 Justice System Journal 7-22 (1984) Joel B. Grossman, Elizabeth McNichol, David M. Trubek & Austin Sarat
  • Fee Arrangements and Fee Shifting: Lessons from the Experience in Ontario, 47 Law and Contemporary Problems 125-38 (1984)
  • Mothers and Fathers, and Girls and Boys: Socialization in the Family Revisited, 10 Political Methodology 245-65 (1984)
  • Testing for Change in Relational Measures, 10 Political Methodology 143-64 (1984)
  • The Dimensions of Lawyer-Client Relations: Notes Toward a Theory and a Field Study, 1984 American Bar Foundation Research Journal 409-25 (1984)
  • Understanding the Costs of Litigation: The Case of the Hourly Fee Lawyer, 1984 American Bar Foundation Research Journal 559-604 (1984) Austin Sarat, David M. Trubek, Kristin Bumiller & Elizabeth McNichol
  • The Arbitration Alternative: A Comparative Analysis of Case Processing Time, Disposition Mode, and Cost in the American Arbitration Association and the Courts, 8 Justice System Journal 6-19 (1983) Jill K. Anderson
  • The Costs of Ordinary Litigation, 31 UCLA Law Review 72-127 (1983) David M. Trubek, Austin Sarat, William L.F. Felstiner & Joel B. Grossman
  • The Identification Problem in Cohort Analysis, 9 Political Methodology 35-50 (1983)
  • Court Reform Through Role Reform: The Role of the Judge as an Instrument of Reform, 10 Policy Studies Journal 701-11 (1982)
  • Dimensions of Institutional Participation: Who Uses the Courts, and How?, 44 Journal of Politics 86-114 (1982) Joel B. Grossman, Kristin Bumiller, Austin Sarat, Stephen McDougal & Richard Miller
  • Problems in Estimating the Optimal-Cost Prison Size, 16 Law & Society Review 139-42 (1981-82)
  • The Judge’s Role in Pretrial Case Processing: Assessing the Need for Change, 66 Judicature 28-38 (1982)
  • Measuring the Pace of Litigation in Federal and State Trial Courts, 65 Judicature 86-113 (1981) Joel B. Grossman, Kristin Bumiller & Stephen McDougal
  • Methods for Studying Disputes: Learning from the CLRP Experience, 15 Law & Society Review 503-24 (1980-81)
  • Studying Disputes by Survey, 25 American Behavioral Scientist 67-74 (1981) Richard E. Miller & William L.F. Felstiner
  • Comparing Partial Rank Order Correlation Coefficients from Contingency Table Data, 8 Sociological Methods & Research 420-33 (1980)
  • Approaches to the Analysis of Complex Contingency Tables: A Guide for the Perplexed, 7 Sociological Methods & Research 305-29 (1979)
  • Federal Judges and Their Political Environments: The Influence of Public Opinion, 23 American Journal of Political Science 194-205 (1979)
  • Functional Analysis of Persuasive Interaction in a Role-Playing Experiment, 107 Journal of Social Psychology 77-88 (1979) A. Paul Hare & Herbert H. Blumberg
  • Presidential Coattails Revisited: Partisanship and Incumbency Effects, 23 American Journal of Political Science 615-26 (1979) Robert B. Eubank
  • The Presidential Ambition of Democratic Senators: Its Timing and Impact, 9 Presidential Studies Quarterly 316-28 (1979) Thomas M. Uhlman
  • An Introduction to Multivariate Contingency Table Analysis, 22 American Journal of Political Science 187-226 (1978)
  • Analyzing Contingency Tables by Weighted Least Squares: An Alternative to the Goodman Approach, 5 Political Methodology 277-326 (1978)
  • Enforcing the Selective Service Act: Deterrence of Potential Violators, 30 Stanford Law Review 1149-76 (1978)
  • Ideology and American Political Elites, 42 Public Opinion Quarterly 484-502 (1978)
  • Political Correlates of the Behavior of Federal District Judges: A “Best Case” Analysis, 40 Journal of Politics 25-58 (1978)
  • Analyzing Measures of Association Derived from Contingency Tables, 5 Sociological Methods & Research 387-418 (1977)
  • Political Protest and Political Violence: A Nonrecursive Causal Model, 55 Social Forces 630-40 (1977)
  • Simultaneous Equations in Path Analysis: A Comparison of Goodman’s Technique to the Traditional Econometric Solution, 4 Political Methodology 1-21 (1977)
  • Sisterhood in the Courtroom: Sex of Judge and Defendant as Factors in Criminal Case Disposition, 14 Social Science Journal 77-88 (1977), reprinted in Women’s Studies: An Interdisciplinary Collection 75 (Kathleen O’Connor Blumhagen & Walter D. Johnson, eds., Greenwood Press, 1978) Thomas M. Uhlman
  • The Representativeness of the 1972 Presidential Primaries, 10 Polity 121-29 (1977), reprinted in The Party Symbol: Readings on Political Parties 148 (William Crotty, ed., W.H. Freeman, 1980)
  • NONMET II: A Program for the Analysis of Contingency Tables and Other Types of Nonmetric Data by Weighted Least Squares, 8 Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation 320-1 (1976)
  • Problems in the Use of Two Stage Least Squares: Standardization of Coefficients and Multicollinearity, 3 Political Methodology 71-93 (1976)
  • Sanctions and Deviance: Another Look, 3 IUSTITA 18-28 (1975)
  • Sources of Role Orientations: “Reality or Chance?”, 37 Journal of Politics 1048-55 (1975)
  • Unconventional Approaches to Conflict Resolution: Erikson and Sharp on Nonviolence, 19 Journal of Conflict Resolution 713-33 (1975) Lewis Lipsitz
  • After Prison: The Thoughts of Resisters, WIN Magazine 14 (Sep. l2, 1974)
  • Evaluation of Training for Nonviolent Direct Action, 1 Mental Health and Society 364-75 (1974) Herbert H. Blumberg, A. Paul Hare, Carolyn Fuller & Charles C. Walker
  • Nonviolent National Defense: Concepts and Implications, 5 Peace Research Reviews 1-57 (1974)
  • The General Survey: A Short Measure of Five Personality Dimensions, 86 Journal of Psychology 165-72 (1974) A. Paul Hare & Herbert H. Blumberg
  • NONMET: A Program for the Analysis of Nonmetric Data by Linear Models, 17 Behavioral Science 74-5 (1973)
  • The Military as a Target of Protest, 17 Gandhi Marg 58-73 (1973)
  • The JCCLIB Statistical Programs, 16 Behavioral Science 576 (1971)

Book Chapters

  • Reforming Fee Regimes and the Cost of Civil Justice, in The Justice Crisis: The Cost and Value of Accessing Law 267-286 (Trevor C.W. Farrow & Lesley A. Jacobs, eds., UBC Press, 2020)
  • Contestation and Competitiveness in State Supreme Court Elections, 1946-2015: A State-Level Analysis, in Judicial Elections in the 21st Century 33-53 (Chris W. Bonneau & Melinda Gann Hall, eds., Routledge, 2017)
  • Day-to-Day Legitimacy: First Instance Forums Broadly Construed, in Making Law and Courts Research Relevant: The Normative Implications of Empirical Research 208-218 (Brandon L. Bartels & Chris W. Bonneau, eds., Routledge, 2015)
  • Private Enforcement of Statutory and Administrative Law in the United States (and Other Common Law Countries), in Procedural Justice 197-318 (Peter Gottwald & Burkhard Hess, eds., Gieseking-Verlag, 2014) Stephen B. Burbank & Sean Farhang
  • Betwixt and Between: The Ethical Dilemmas of Insurance Defense, in Lawyers in Practice: Ethical Decision Making in Context 131-151 ( Leslie C. Levin & Lynn Mather, eds., University of Chicago Press, 2012)
  • Claiming Behavior as Legal Mobilization, in The Oxford Handbook of Empirical Legal Research 260-84 (Peter Cane & Herbert M. Kritzer, eds., Oxford University Press, 2010)
  • The (Nearly) Forgotten Early Empirical Legal Research, in The Oxford Handbook of Empirical Legal Research 875-900 (Peter Cane & Herbert M. Kritzer, eds., Oxford University Press, 2010)
  • “Research Is a Messy Business”: An Archeology of the Craft of Sociolegal Research, in Conducting Law and Society Research: Reflections on Methods and Practices (Simon Halliday & Patrick Schmidt, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2009)
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  • Settlement of Claims, in The New Oxford Companion to Law (Peter Cane & Joanne Conaghan, eds., Oxford University Press, 2008)
  • Access to Justice for the Middle Class, in Access to Justice for a New Century: The Way Forward 257-68 (Julia Bass, W.A. Bogart & Frederick Zemans, eds., Law Society of Upper Canada, 2005)
  • Anticipating the New Institutionalism: The Pioneering Work of Martin Shapiro, in The Pioneers of Judicial Behavior 387-417 (Nancy Maveety, ed., University of Michigan Press, 2003)
  • The Government Gorilla: Why Does Government Come Out Ahead in Appellate Courts?, in In Litigation: Do the “Haves” Still Come Out Ahead? 342-70 (Herbert M. Kritzer & Susan S. Silbey, eds., Stanford University Press, 2003)
  • Stories from the Field: Collecting Data Outside Over There, in Practicing Ethnography in Law: New Dialogues, Enduring Practices 143-59 (June Starr & Mark Goodale, eds., Palgrave Macmillan, 2002)
  • Winners and Losers in Litigation: Does Anyone Come Out Ahead?, in American Court Systems: Readings in Judicial Process and Behavior 516-24 (Sheldon Goldman & Austin Sarat, eds., Longman, 2nd ed., 1989) Austin Sarat, David M. Trubek & William L.F. Felstiner
  • Using Categorical Regression to Analyze Multivariate Contingency Tables, in New Tools for Social Scientists: Advances and Applications in Research Methods 157-201 (William D. Berry & Michael S. Lewis-Beck, eds., Sage Publications, 1986)
  • Political Culture, Trial Courts, and Criminal Cases, in The Study of Criminal Courts: Political Perspectives 131-69 (Peter Nardulli, ed., Ballinger Publishing, 1979)
  • A Theory of Unconventional Political Action: The Dynamics of Confrontation, in Repression and Repressive Violence: Proceedings of the 3rd International Working Conference on Violence and Non-violent Action in Industrialized Societies 108-132 (Marjo Hoefnagels, ed., Swets & Zeitlinger, 1977)

Book Reviews

  • Are Court Decisions Consistent with Public Preferences?, 92 Judicature 84 (2008) (reviewing Thomas Marshall, Public Opinion and the Rehnquist Court (State University of New York Press, 2008))
  • Book Review, 10 Law and Politics Book Review 950-953 (Oct. 2005) (reviewing Fred Prichard, Experts in Civil Cases: An Inside View (LFB Scholarly Pub., 2005))
  • Book Review, 48 Latin Americanist 133-6 (2005) (reviewing M.C. Mirow, Latin American Law: A History of Private Law and Institutions in Spanish America (University of Texas Press, 2004))
  • The Impact of Law: A View from North of the Border, 88 Judicature 38-41 (2004) (reviewing W.A. Bogart, Consequences: The Impact of Law and its Complexity (University of Toronto Press, 2002))
  • Have Segal and Spaeth Finally Driven a Stake Through the Heart of the Legal Model?, Law & Courts Newsletter 19-22 (Summer 2003) (reviewing Jeffrey A. Segal & Harold J. Spaeth, The Supreme Court and the Attitudinal Model Revisited (Cambridge University Press, 2002))
  • Book Review, 12 Law and Politics Book Review 183-184 (Apr. 2002) (reviewing Jerry Van Hoy, ed., Legal Professions: Work, Structure and Organization (JAI, 2001))
  • Book Review, 11 Law and Politics Book Review 155-157 ( Apr. 2001) (reviewing Richard Susskind, Transforming the Law: Essays on Technology, Justice and the Legal Market Place (Oxford University Press, 2000))
  • Book Review, 10 Law and Politics Book Review 641-642 (Dec. 2000) (reviewing J.A. Jolowicz, On Civil Procedure (Cambridge University Press, 2000))
  • Book Review, 10 Law and Politics Book Review 254-256 (Apr. 2000) (reviewing Adrian A.S. Zuckerman, ed., Civil Justice in Crisis: Comparative Perspectives of Civil Procedure (Oxford University Press, 1999))
  • Book Review, 9 Law and Politics Book Review 482-485 (Nov. 1999) (reviewing Lawrence Friedman, The Horizontal Society (Yale University Press, 1999))
  • Book Review, 7 Law and Politics Book Review 393-396 (July 1997) (reviewing Susan Sterett, Creating Constitutionalism? The Politics of Legal Expertise and Administrative Law in England and Wales (University of Michigan Press, 1997))
  • Book Review, 6 Law and Politics Book Review 168-171 (Dec. 1996) (reviewing Carroll Seron, The Business of Practicing Law: The Work Lives of Solo and Small-Firm Attorneys (Temple University Press, 1996))
  • Book Review, 90 American Political Science Review 422-23 (1996) (reviewing Cornell W. Clayton, ed., Government Lawyers: The Federal Legal Bureaucracy and Presidential Politics (University Press of Kansas, 1995))
  • Book Review, 5 Law and Politics Book Review 255-258 (Oct. 1995) (reviewing Stephen Daniels & Joanne Martin, Civil Juries and the Politics of Reform (Northwestern University Press, 1995))
  • Book Review, 4 Law and Politics Book Review 30-32 (Mar. 1994) (reviewing Carol Harlow & Richard Rawlings, Pressure through Law (Routledge, 1992))
  • Book Review, 18 Legal Studies Forum 129-132 (1994) (reviewing Robert E. Litan, ed., Verdict: Assessing the Civil Jury System (Brookings Institution, 1993))
  • Book Review, 88 American Political Science Review 470-71 (1994) (reviewing Roy B. Flemming, Peter F. Nardulli & James Eisenstein, The Craft of Justice: Politics and Work in Criminal Court Communities (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992))

Edited Symposia & Journals

  • Special Issue: Legal Change on Legal Practitioners, 17 International Journal of the Legal Profession (2010)
  • Law & Society Review, vols. 39-42 (2005-2008)
  • Do the “Haves” Still Come Out Ahead?, 33 Law & Society Review 795-1132 (1999) (special symposium issue) Susan S. Silbey

Entries in Reference Works

  • Litigation, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences 265-75 (Elsevier, 2d ed., 2015)
  • Paralawyers: Other Legal Occupations, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences 482-85 (Elsevier, 2d ed., 2015)
  • San Marino, in Legal Systems of the World 1400-03 (Herbert M. Kritzer, ed., ABC-CLIO, 2002)
  • Litigation, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences 8989-95 (Neil J. Smelser & Paul B. Baltes, eds., Elsevier, 2001)
  • Paralawyers: Other Legal Occupations, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences 11027-31 (Neil J. Smelser & Paul B. Baltes, eds., Elsevier, 2001)

Other Publications

  • Editorial, 24 International Journal of the Legal Profession 71-72 (2017)
  • To Regulate or Not to Regulate, or (Better Still) When to Regulate, 19 Dispute Resolution Magazine 12 (Spr. 2013)
    | SSRN
  • Editorial: Special Issue - Legal Change on Legal Practitioners, 17 International Journal of the Legal Profession 1-3 (2010)
  • The Risks of Recidivism: An Employment Perspective (June 2001) (report prepared for the Wisconsin Legislature pursuant to 1999 Wisconsin Act 9, s. 9111 (4xx))
  • Court User Opinions: Incorporating Consumer Research into Strategic Planning (Wisconsin Supreme Court, Office of Court Operations, 1997) (report prepared for submission to the Wisconsin State Justice Institute) John Voelker
  • Analysis of the Empirical Basis for Proposed Reforms of New Jersey’s Lawyer Disciplinary System (Jan. 1994) (report submitted to the State Bar of New Jersey) Marc Galanter
  • Adult Guardianships in Wisconsin: An Empirical Assessment: a report prepared for the Center for Public Representation, and Elder Law Center, Coalition of Wisconsin Aging Groups (Center for Public Representation, 1992)
  • Costs, Processes, and Outcomes: Lawyers’ Attitudes Toward Courts and Other Dispute Processing Options (Disputes Processing Research Program, University of Wisconsin Law School, 1984) (report to the National Institute for Dispute Resolution) David M. Trubek, Karen Holst & William L.F. Felstiner
  • The Civil Litigation Research Project: Lessons for Studying the Civil Justice System, in Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Law and Justice Statistics 1983 30-36 (Alan Gelfand, ed., U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1984)
  • Civil Litigation Research Project Final Report (Civil Litigation Research Project, University of Wisconsin Law School, 1983) David M. Trubek, Joel B. Grossman, William L.F. Felstiner & Austin Sarat
  • The Pace of Arbitration in Cases Processed by the American Arbitration Association, in The Pace of Litigation: Conference Proceedings 114-123 (Jane W. Adler, William L. F. Felstiner, Deborah R. Hensler & Mark A. Peterson, eds., Rand Corp., 1982)

Doctoral Theses

  • Judicial Response to Protest: The Sentencing of Draft Resisters and Its Impact (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1974)


  • NONMET II Plus: A Program for the Analysis of Contingency Tables and Other Types of Nonmetric Data by Least Squares (Wisc-Ware, 1988)
  • NONMET II: A Program for the Analysis of Contingency Tables and Other Types of Nonmetric Data by Least Squares (Social Science Program Library, Rice University, 1976)

Research Grants

  • Research Grant from Project on Scientific Knowledge and Public Policy (2006-07)
  • Research Grant from Project on Scientific Knowledge and Public Policy (2004-06)
  • Research Grant from National Science Foundation (1997-99)
  • Research Grant from National Science Foundation (1995-98)
  • Research Grant from National Science Foundation (1992-95)
  • Research Grant from National Science Foundation (1988-91)
  • Research Grant from Canadian Studies Grant Program, Embassy of Canada (1988-90)
  • Data Development Grant from National Science Foundation (1985-87)
  • Research Grant from National Science Foundation (1984-86)
  • Research Grant from National Institute of Dispute Resolution (1984)
  • Research Contract from U.S. Department of Justice (1979-81)
  • Grant-in-Aid from Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (1974) (dissertation research)

Contact Information

University of Minnesota Law School

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P: 612-625-5000

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