Tom Cotter

  • Briggs and Morgan Professor of Law
  • University of Wisconsin, B.S., M.S., J.D.

Office: 414
Mondale Hall, 229 19th Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55455

Professor Thomas F. Cotter joined the University of Minnesota Law School faculty in 2006. He received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in economics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and in 1987 graduated magna cum laude from the University of Wisconsin Law School, where he served as Senior Articles Editor of the Wisconsin Law Review and was elected to the Order of the Coif.

From 1987-89, Professor Cotter clerked for the Honorable Lawrence W. Pierce, United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. He practiced law at Cravath, Swaine & Moore in New York City from 1988-90, and at Jenner & Block in Chicago from 1990-94. From 1994-2005, he taught at the University of Florida College of Law, where he held a University of Florida Research Foundation Professorship and directed the school’s Intellectual Property Law Program. From 2005-06, he was a Professor of Law at Washington and Lee University School of Law. In 2007, he was named to a two-year Solly Robins Distinguished Research Fellowship at the University of Minnesota Law School, and in 2008 was named to the Briggs and Morgan Chair in Law.

Professor Cotter’s principal research and teaching interests are in the fields of domestic and international intellectual property law, antitrust, and law and economics. He is the author of six books—Patent Wars:  How Patents Impact Our Daily Lives (Oxford Univ. Press, 2018); Trademarks, Unfair Competition, and Business Torts (with Barton Beebe, Mark A. Lemley, Peter S. Menell, and Robert P. Merges) (Wolters Kluwer 2d ed., 2016; 1st ed., 2011); Law and Economics: Positive, Normative, and Behavioral Perspectives (with Jeffrey L. Harrison) (3d ed., Thomson West, 2013); Comparative Patent Remedies: A Legal and Economic Analysis (Oxford University Press, 2013); and Intellectual Property: Economic and Legal Dimensions of Rights and Remedies (with Roger D. Blair) (Cambridge University Press 2005). 

Altogether he has authored or coauthored over 60 other scholarly works, including articles in the California Law Review, the Georgetown Law Journal, the Iowa Law Review, the Minnesota Law Review, and the University of Illinois Law Review. He also publishes a blog,, on the law (both foreign and domestic) and economics of patent remedies. Most recently, the Innovators Network Foundation, in partnership with ACT|The App Association, appointed Professor Cotter to a one-year Intellectual Property Fellowship.

PDF iconRead Prof. Cotter’s CV.


Patent Remedies


International Intellectual Property

Unfair Competition



  • Patent Wars: How Patents Impact Our Daily Lives (Oxford University Press, 2018)
  • Trademarks, Unfair Competition, and Business Torts (Wolters Kluwer, 2011; 2d ed., 2016) (and accompanying teacher’s manual) Barton Beebe, Mark A. Lemley, Peter S. Menell & Robert P. Merges
  • Law and Economics: Positive, Normative and Behavioral Perspectives (West, 3d ed., 2014) Jeffrey L. Harrison
  • Comparative Patent Remedies: A Legal and Economic Analysis (Oxford University Press, 2013)
  • Intellectual Property: Economic and Legal Dimensions of Rights and Remedies (Cambridge University Press, 2005) Roger D. Blair

Journal Articles

  • Patent Damages Heuristics, 25 Texas Intellectual Property Law Journal 159 (2018)
    | SSRN
  • On Unknown Opportunities and Perils: Reflections on Carrier and Minniti’s “Biologics: The New Antitrust Frontier,” 2018 University of Illinois Law Review Online 72 (2018)
    | SSRN
  • Review Essay, 55 James Joyce Quarterly 213 (2018) (reviewing Joyce and the Law (Jonathan Goldman, ed., University of Florida Press, 2017)
  • The Value of the Standard, 101 Minnesota Law Review 1159 (2017) Norman Siebrasse
    | SSRN
  • A New Framework for Determining Reasonable Royalties in Patent Litigation, 68 Florida Law Review 929 (2016) Norman V. Siebrasse
    | SSRN
  • Anticompetitive Patent Injunctions, 100 Minnesota Law Review 871 (2016) Erik Hovenkamp
    | SSRN
  • Legal Pragmatism and Intellectual Property Law, 7 Zeitschrift fur Geistiges Eigentum / Intellectual Property Journal 291 (2015)
  • Patents, Antitrust, and the High Cost of Health Care, 13-APR Antitrust Source 1 (Apr. 2014)
    | SSRN
  • FTC v. Actavis, Inc.: When Is the Rule of Reason Not the Rule of Reason?, 15 Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology 41 (2014)
    | SSRN
  • Make No Little Plans: Response to Ted Sichelman, Purging Patent Law of Private Law Remedies, 92 Texas Law Review See Also 25 (2014)
    | SSRN
  • Comparative Law and Economics of Standard-Essential Patents and FRAND Royalties, 22 Texas Intellectual Property Law Journal 311 (2014)
    | SSRN
  • The International Trade Commission: Reform or Abolition? A Comment on Colleen V. Chien & Mark A. Lemley, Patent Holdup, the ITC, and the Public Interest, 98 Cornell Law Review Online 43 (Apr. 2013)
    | SSRN
  • Reining in Remedies in Patent Litigation: Three (Increasingly Immodest) Proposals, 30 Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal 1 (2013)
    | SSRN
  • An Economic Analysis of Patent Law’s Inequitable Conduct Doctrine, 53 Arizona Law Review 735 (2011)
    | SSRN
  • Four Principles for Calculating Reasonable Royalties in Patent Infringement Litigation, 27 Santa Clara Computer & High Technology Law Journal 725 (2011)
    | SSRN
  • Four Questionable Rationales for the Patent Misuse Doctrine, 12 Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology 457 (2011)
    | SSRN
  • IP Misuse and Innovation Harm, 96 Iowa Law Review Bulletin 52 (2011)
    | SSRN
  • A Burkean Perspective on Patent Eligibility, Part II: Reflections on the (Counter)Revolution in Patent Law, 11 Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology 365 (2010)
    | SSRN
  • Integrating the Right of Publicity with First Amendment and Copyright Preemption Analysis, 33 Columbia Journal of Law & the Arts 165 (2010) Irina Dmitrieva
    | SSRN
  • Optimal Fines for False Patent Marking, 17 Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review 181 (2010)
    | SSRN
  • Patent Remedies and Practical Reason, 88 Texas Law Review See Also 125 (2010)
    | SSRN
  • Transformative Use and Cognizable Harm, 12 Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment and Technology Law 701 (2010)
    | SSRN
  • Patent Holdup, Patent Remedies, and Antitrust Responses, 34 Journal of Corporation Law 1151 (2009)
    | SSRN
  • Fair Use and Copyright Overenforcement, 93 Iowa Law Review 1271 (2008)
    | SSRN
  • Reflections on the Antitrust Modernization Commission’s Report and Recommendations Relating to the Antitrust/IP Interface, 53 Antitrust Bulletin 745 (2008)
  • Toward a Functional Definition of Publication in Copyright Law, 92 Minnesota Law Review 1724 (2008)
    | SSRN
  • A Burkean Perspective on Patent Eligibility, 22 Berkeley Technology Law Journal 855 (2007)
    | SSRN
  • Authorship, Audiences, and Anonymous Speech, 82 Notre Dame Law Review 1537 (2007) Lyrissa Barnett Lidsky
    | SSRN
  • Misuse, 44 Houston Law Review 901 (2007)
    | SSRN
  • Some Observations on the Law and Economics of Intermediaries, 2006 Michigan State Law Review 67 (2006)
    | SSRN
  • The Procompetitive Interest in Intellectual Property Law, 48 William & Mary Law Review 483 (2006)
  • Memes and Copyright, 80 Tulane Law Review 331 (2005)
    | SSRN
  • Accommodating the Unauthorized Use of Copyrighted Works for Religious Purposes Under the Fair Use Doctrine and Copyright Act § 110 (3), 22 Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal 43 (2004)
  • An Economic Analysis of Enhanced Damages and Attorney’s Fees for Willful Patent Infringement, 14 Federal Circuit Bar Journal 291 (2004)
  • Antitrust Implications of Patent Settlements Involving Reverse Payments: Defending a Rebuttable Presumption of Illegality in Light of Some Recent Scholarship, 71 Antitrust Law Journal 1069 (2004)
  • Market Fundamentalism and the TRIPs Agreement, 22 Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal 307 (2004)
  • Gutenberg’s Legacy: Copyright, Censorship, and Religious Pluralism, 91 California Law Review 323 (2003)
    | SSRN
  • Prolegomenon to a Memetic Theory of Copyright: Comments on Lawrence Lessig’s The Creative Commons, 55 Florida Law Review 779 (2003)
  • Refining the “Presumptive Illegality” Approach to Settlements of Patent Disputes Involving Reverse Payments: A Commentary on Hovenkamp, Janis & Lemley, 87 Minnesota Law Review 1789 (2003)
  • Written on the Body: Intellectual Property Rights in Tattoos, Makeup, and Other Body Art, 10 UCLA Entertainment Law Review 97 (2003) Angela M. Mirabole
    | SSRN
  • Are Settlements of Patent Disputes Illegal Per Se?, 47 Antitrust Bulletin 491 (2002) Roger D. Blair
  • Strict Liability and Its Alternatives in Patent Law, 17 Berkeley Technology Law Journal 799 (2002) Roger D. Blair
  • Rethinking Patent Damages, 10 Texas Intellectual Property Law Journal 1 (2001) Roger D. Blair
    | SSRN
  • The Elusive Logic of Standing Doctrine in Intellectual Property Law, 74 Tulane Law Review 1323 (2000) Roger D. Blair
    | SSRN
  • An Economic Analysis of Seller and User Liability in Intellectual Property Law, 68 University of Cincinnati Law Review 1 (1999) Roger D. Blair
    | SSRN
  • Intellectual Property and the Essential Facilities Doctrine, 44 Antitrust Bulletin 211 (1999), reprinted in The Economics of Intellectual Property 177-216 (Ruth Towse & Rudi W. Holzhauer, eds., Edward Elgar Publishing, 2002))
  • Is This Conflict Really Necessary?: Resolving an Ostensible Conflict between Patent Law and Federal Trademark Law, 3 Marquette Intellectual Property Law Review 25 (1999)
    | SSRN
  • When the State Steals Ideas: Is the Abrogation of State Sovereign Immunity from Infringement Claims Constitutional in Light of Seminole Tribe?, 67 Fordham Law Review 1435 (1999) Christina Bohannan
  • An Economic Analysis of Damages Rules in Intellectual Property Law, 39 William & Mary Law Review 1585 (1998) Roger D. Blair
  • Do Federal Uses of Intellectual Property Implicate the Fifth Amendment?, 50 Florida Law Review 529 (1998)
  • Pragmatism, Economics, and the Droit Moral, 76 North Carolina Law Review 1 (1997)
  • Conflicting Interests in Trade Secrets, 48 Florida Law Review 591 (1996)
  • Legal Pragmatism and the Law and Economics Movement, 84 Georgetown Law Journal 2071 (1996)
  • Owning What Doesn’t Exist, Where It Doesn’t Exist: Rethinking Two Doctrines from the Common Law of Trademarks, 1995 University of Illinois Law Review 487 (1995)
  • Cargill, Inc. v. Monfort of Colorado, Inc.: The Supreme Court Restricts Private Antitrust Challenges of Horizontal Mergers, 1987 Wisconsin Law Review 503 (1987) (note)

Book Chapters

  • Empirical Studies Relating to Patents—Remedies, in Research Handbook on the Economics of Intellectual Property Law (Peter Mennell, David Schwartz & Ben Depoorter eds., Edward Elgar Publishing, forthcoming) John M. Golden
  • Judicially Determined FRAND Royalties, in The Cambridge Handbook of Technical Standardization Law​ 365 (Jorge L. Contreras, ed., Cambridge University Press, 2018) Norman V. Siebrasse
  • A Comparative Law and Economics Analysis of Damages for Patent Infringement, in Comparative Law and Economics 262 (Theodore Eisenberg & Giovanni B. Ramello, eds., Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016)
  • Comparative Overview and the TRIPS Enforcement Provisions, in Patent Enforcement Worldwide: Writings in Honour of Dieter Stauder 3 (Christopher Heath, ed., Hart Publishing, 3d ed., 2015) Christopher Heath
  • Innovation and Antitrust Policy, in Oxford Handbook of International Antitrust Economics 132 (Roger D. Blair & D. Daniel Sokol, eds., Oxford University Press, 2015)
  • A Research Agenda for the Comparative Law and Economics of Patent Remedies, in Patent Law in Global Perspective 637 (Ruth L. Okediji & Margo A. Bagley, eds., Oxford University Press, 2014)
  • Legal Pragmatism and Intellectual Property Law, in Intellectual Property and the Common Law 211 (Shyamkrishna Balganesh, ed., Cambridge University Press, 2013)
  • The Essential Facilities Doctrine, in Antitrust Law and Economics 157 (Keith N. Hylton, ed., Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010)

Book Reviews

  • Evaluating the Pro- and Anticompetitive Effects of Intellectual Property Protection, 5 The Antitrust Source (Mar. 2006) (reviewing Antitrust, Patents and Copyright: EU and US Perspectives (Francois Leveque & Howard Shelanski, eds., Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005))
  • Law, Economics, and Intellectual Property, 3 The Antitrust Source (Mar. 2004) (reviewing William M. Landes & Richard A. Posner, The Economic Structure of Intellectual Property Law (Harvard University Press, 2003))

Edited Symposia & Journals

  • Guest Editor, Perspectives on United States v. Microsoft Corp., 44 Antitrust Bulletin 553-738 (1999)

Entries in Reference Works

  • Pragmatism (Update), in 4 Encyclopedia of the American Constitution (Supplement) 1983-84 (Leonard W. Levy & Kenneth J. Karst, eds., Macmillan Reference USA, 2d ed., 2000)

CLE Materials

  • What You Need to Know about Antitrust Developments and How They Relate to IP, in 2015 Midwest Intellectual Property Institute (Minnesota Continuing Legal Education, 2015) Scott M. Flaherty & Bethany D. Krueger
  • Copyright Trolls, in 2013 Midwest Intellectual Property Institute (Minnesota Continuing Legal Education, 2013)
  • Basic Copyright: Law of the Arts 101, in 2011 Art, Entertainment & Sports Law Institute (Minnesota Continuing Legal Education, 2011)
  • Introduction to the Antitrust Laws and the Intersection of Antitrust and Intellectual Property, in Antitrust Law Issues in Intellectual Property Litigation and Licensing (Minnesota Continuing Legal Education, 2011)
  • False Patent Marking Claims after Bon Tool: Patent Marking “Trolls” or Guardians of the Patent System?, in The 2010 Midwest Intellectual Property Institute (Minnesota Continuing Legal Education, 2010)
  • Hot Topics in Patent Remedies, in The 2009 Midwest Intellectual Property Institute (Minnesota Continuing Legal Education, 2009) Devan V. Padmanabhan
  • Civil Procedure and Jurisdiction, in 1997 Business Litigation Conference Certification Review Course (Florida Bar Continuing Legal Education Committee and Business Law Section, Apr. 17-18, 1997)
  • Civil Procedure and Jurisdiction, in 1996 Business Litigation Certification Review Course (Florida Bar Continuing Legal Education Committee and Business Law Section, Apr. 26-27, 1996)

Other Publications

  • Not Fare Well, But Fare Forward, Voyagers, 10 Journal of Technology Law & Policy ix-xii (2005)
  • Introduction to Symposium on Intellectual Property, Development, and Human Rights, 14 Florida Journal of International Law 147 (2002)
  • Foreword, 3 Journal of Technology Law & Policy 1-3 (1998)

Contact Information

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P: 612-625-5000

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